Allmax® Nutrition CREATINE KRUSH™ - Fruit Punch Recharged

Allmax® Nutrition CREATINE KRUSH™ - Fruit Punch Recharged - HEALTH BODY SERVICES 1011825 - GNC Zoom
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Description

CREATINE KRUSH&TRAD;E IS YOUR IDEAL COMPLETE WORKOUT SOLUTION:
Neglecting post-workout carbohydrate intake will damage your recovery and impair your progress. CREATINE KRUSH™ contains 35g of a Phased-Release 5-Source Carb Matrix supported by a 6-ingredient Insulogenic Creatine Amplifier that stimulates rapid muscle re-fueling and total recovery. Stacked with a precise research-directed 5 grams of 100% Bioavailable Pharmeceutical Grade Creatine for dramatic increases in muscle strength, power and size (see chart below)
GET LIGHTENING FAST RESULTS WITH THE ULTIMATE IN POST-WORKOUT MUSCLE THERAPY2,500 mg of 100% Pure Fermented L-Glutamine has been included which has been shown in recent research to upregulate the production of HSP (Heat Shock Proteins) that form new muscle cells.
With a category-first Instant Rapid-Charge Effervescent Release System and exceptional taste, it is only a matter of time before CREATINE KRUSH™ is the dominant feature in post-workout supplementation.
Bioenergy® RIBOSE- is an electrifying recovery compound that every bodybuilder and athlete MUST HAVE tin their arsenal. RIBOSE replenishes muscle cell energy right at the source! 100% pure patented pharmaceutical BioEergy® RIBOSE is not burned as fuel, rather it is absorbed into the cell to refuel ATP muscle cell energy stores lost during intense training.
Satellite Cells- In skeletal muscle cells, satellite cells (SC) are located between the sarcolemma and the basal lamina of the muscle fiber. Satellite cells are able to differentiate and fuse to augment existing muscle fibers and to form new fibers.
Number of satellite cells per fiber showed a significant group by time effect increased dramatically in subjects that consumed PharmaFuse™ from baseline to week4 (+111%)
THE PERFECT WORKOUT STACK
Take MUSCLEPRIME Supplement designed to gain muscular strength, size and power while replenishing essential glycogen stores.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Label

Supplement Facts

Serving Size 1 Scoop
Servings Per Container 30
Amount Per Serving % DV
Calories 140.00
Total Carbohydrate 35.00 g12%
Sugars 28.00 g
Vitamin C (as ascorbate acid) 50.00 mg83%
Calcium (as Calcium Phosphate & Bicarbonate) 140.00 mg
Phosphorus (as calcium Sodium & Potassium Phosphate & Creatinol-O-Phosphate) 45.00 mg
Magnesium (as magnesium citrate and Gluconate & Chloride) 110.00 mg
Chromium (as Chromium Polynicotinate) 120.00 mcg100%
Sodium (as sodium chloride Sodium Bicarbonate & Disodium Phosphate) 320.00 mg
Potassium (as potassium phosphate & Bicarbonate) 115.00 mg
5-SOURCE CARB MATRIX 35.80 g**
CREATINE MATRIX 5.00 g**
GLUTASURE™ 2.50 g**
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE AND STAMINA COMPLEX 465.00 mg**
CREATINE AMPLICATION MATRIX 146.00 mg **
** Daily Value (DV) not established

Product Directions / Additional Info

To maximize recovery and gain muscle strength, size and power, mix 2 scoops (50g) in 8 oz of water or your favorite beverage. Stir and drink immediately after intense training. On days you don't train, take the serving upon waking up. For maximum gains, follow the The Perfect Workout Stack
SCIENTIFIC FACT:Taken immediately after intense training, CREATINE KRUSH™ provides critical components ESSENTIAL for rapid muscle growth & total recovery. More so, CREATINE KRUSH™ rapidly refuels muscle glycogen stores and stops muscle breaks down while increasing ATP resynthesizes essential for muscle and energy production.

Other Ingredients: Citric Acid, Natural & Artifical Flavors, Malic Acid, FD&C Red # 40 Lake, Sucralose, Acesulfame Potassium, FD&C Red #40

Storage Instructions: Store in cool, dry place.

Warning: For adults only. Consult a healthcare practitioner if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, have a medical condition, or are taking prescription medications. Do not exceed recommended serving. Use only as directed. Do not use if you have any pre-existing conditions. Not intended for use by those under 18 unless recommended by a health care professional. Discontinue use if you experience any adverse reactions. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

Contains soy.

produced in a facility that also handles milk, soy, egg, peanuts, tree nut, crustacean and shellfish products

Distributed Exclusively by: HBS International Corp. 711 S. CarsACon St., Suite 4, Carson City, NV 89701

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Health Notes

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate
This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dose: 5 grams three times a day for two weeks, and then 5 grams once daily
Creatine has been shown to increase muscle strength, muscle endurance, and overall health status.(more)
High Cholesterol
Dose: Refer to label instructions
One trial found that supplementing with creatine significantly lowered serum total cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol.(more)
High Triglycerides
Dose: Refer to label instructions
One trial found that supplementing with significantly lowered serum total triglycerides in both men and women.(more)
Athletic Performance and Non-Weight Bearing Endurance Exercise
Dose: 15 to 20 grams daily for five or six days
Taking this supplement for five or six days may improve performance of high-intensity, short-duration exercise (like sprinting) or sports with alternating low- and high-intensity efforts.(more)
Athletic Performance and High-Intensity, Short Duration Exercise or Sports with Alternating Low- and High-Intensity Efforts
Dose: 15 to 20 grams a day for five or six days
Supplementing with creatine may improve performance of non-weight bearing endurance exercises such as cycling.(more)
Athletic Performance and High-Intensity, Short Duration Exercise or Sports with Alternating Low- and High-Intensity Efforts
Dose: 15 to 20 grams a day for five or six days
Supplementing with creatine may improve performance of non-weight bearing endurance exercises such as cycling.(more)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dose: 5 grams three times a day for two weeks, and then 5 grams once daily

In a double-blind study, people with COPD received creatine or a placebo for 12 weeks. After the first 2 weeks of supplementation, all participants underwent an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Compared with the placebo, creatine significantly increased muscle strength, muscle endurance, and overall health status, but not exercise capacity.1 The amount of creatine used in this study was 5 grams three times a day for 2 weeks, and then 5 grams once a day for 10 weeks.

References

1. Fuld JP, Kilduff LP, Neder JA, et al. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax2005;60:531-7.

High Cholesterol
Dose: Refer to label instructionsA double-blind trial found that 20 grams per day of creatine taken for five days, followed by ten grams per day for 51 days, significantly lowered serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, but did not change either LDL or HDL cholesterol, in both men and women.1 However, another double-blind trial found no change in any of these blood levels in trained athletes using creatine during a 12-week strength training program.2 Creatine supplementation in this negative trial was lower-only 5 grams per day were taken for the last 11 weeks of the study.
References

1. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91:113-8.

2. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:144-56.

High Triglycerides
Dose: Refer to label instructions

A double-blind trial found that a supplement of 5 grams of creatine plus 1 gram of glucose taken four times per day for five days followed by twice a day for 51 days significantly lowered serum total triglycerides in both men and women.1 However, another double-blind trial found no change in any of these blood levels in trained athletes using creatine during a 12-week strength training program.2 Creatine supplementation in this negative trial was lower-only five grams per day was taken for the last 11 weeks of the study.

References

1. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91:113-8.

2. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:144-56.

Athletic Performance and Non-Weight Bearing Endurance Exercise
Dose: 15 to 20 grams daily for five or six days

Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is used in muscle tissue for the production of phosphocreatine, a factor in the formation of ATP, the source of energy for muscle contraction and many other functions in the body.1, 2 Creatine supplementation increases phosphocreatine levels in muscle, especially when accompanied by exercise or carbohydrate intake.3, 4 It may also increase exercise-related gains in lean body mass, though it is unclear how much of these gains represents added muscle tissue and how much is simply water retention.5

Over 40 double-blind or controlled studies have found creatine supplementation (typically 136 mg per pound of body weight per day or 15 to 25 grams per day for five or six days) improves performance of either single or repetitive bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise lasting under 30 seconds each.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Examples of this type of exercise include weightlifting; sprinting by runners, cyclists, or swimmers; and many types of athletic training regimens for speed and power. About 15 studies did not report enhancement by creatine of this type of performance. These have been criticized for their small size and other research design problems, but it is possible that some people, especially elite athletes, are less likely to benefit greatly from creatine supplementation.13

Fewer studies have investigated whether creatine supplementation benefits continuous high-intensity exercise lasting 30 seconds or longer. Five controlled studies have found creatine beneficial for this type of exercise,14 but one study found no benefit on performance of a military obstacle course run.15 Most studies of endurance performance have found no advantage of creatine supplementation, except perhaps for non-weight bearing exercise such as cycling. 16, 17, 18

Long-term use of creatine supplementation is typically done using smaller daily amounts (2 to 5 grams per day) after an initial loading period of several days with 20 grams per day. Very little research has been done to investigate the exercise performance effects of long-term creatine supplementation. One study reported that long-term creatine supplementation improved sprint performance.19 Four controlled long-term trials using untrained women,20 trained men,21 or untrained older adults found that creatine improved gains made in strength and lean body mass from weight-training programs.22, 23 However, two controlled trials found no advantage of long-term creatine supplementation in weight-training football players.24, 25

Creatine supplementation appears to increase body weight and lean body mass or fat-free mass, but these measurements do not distinguish between muscle growth and increased water content of muscle.26, 27 A few double-blind studies using more specific muscle measurements have been done and found that combining creatine supplementation with strength training over several weeks does produce greater increases in muscle size compared with strength training alone.28, 29, 30

References

1. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 1994;266:E725-30.

2. Greenhaff PL. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr 1995;5:94-101.

3. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992;83:367-74.

4. Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202.

5. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

6. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

7. Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, Spinks WL, Walshe AD. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:26-33.

8. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

9. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

10. Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, et al. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002;18:397-402.

11. Cottrell GT, Coast JR, Herb RA. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:109-16.

12. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:332-43.

13. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

14. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

15. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

16. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

17. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

18. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:332-43.

19. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

20. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63.

21. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8.

22. Brose A, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58:11-9.

23. Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, Chad KE Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:2111-7.

24. Stout JR, Eckerson J, Noonan D, et al. The effects of a supplement designed to augment creatine uptake on exercise performance and fat-free mass in football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:S251 [abstract].

25. Wilder N, Gilders R, Hagerman F, Deivert RG. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:343-52.

26. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

27. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

28. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1147-56.

29. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8.

30. Willoughby DS, Rosene J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1674-81.

Athletic Performance and High-Intensity, Short Duration Exercise or Sports with Alternating Low- and High-Intensity Efforts
Dose: 15 to 20 grams a day for five or six days

Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is used in muscle tissue for the production of phosphocreatine, a factor in the formation of ATP, the source of energy for muscle contraction and many other functions in the body.1, 2 Creatine supplementation increases phosphocreatine levels in muscle, especially when accompanied by exercise or carbohydrate intake.3, 4 It may also increase exercise-related gains in lean body mass, though it is unclear how much of these gains represents added muscle tissue and how much is simply water retention.5

Over 40 double-blind or controlled studies have found creatine supplementation (typically 136 mg per pound of body weight per day or 15 to 25 grams per day for five or six days) improves performance of either single or repetitive bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise lasting under 30 seconds each.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Examples of this type of exercise include weightlifting; sprinting by runners, cyclists, or swimmers; and many types of athletic training regimens for speed and power. About 15 studies did not report enhancement by creatine of this type of performance. These have been criticized for their small size and other research design problems, but it is possible that some people, especially elite athletes, are less likely to benefit greatly from creatine supplementation.13

Fewer studies have investigated whether creatine supplementation benefits continuous high- intensity exercise lasting 30 seconds or longer. Five controlled studies have found creatine beneficial for this type of exercise,14 but one study found no benefit on performance of a military obstacle course run.15 Most studies of endurance performance have found no advantage of creatine supplementation, except perhaps for non-weight bearing exercise such as cycling. 16, 17, 18

Long-term use of creatine supplementation is typically done using smaller daily amounts (2 to 5 grams per day) after an initial loading period of several days with 20 grams per day. Very little research has been done to investigate the exercise performance effects of long-term creatine supplementation. One study reported that long-term creatine supplementation improved sprint performance.19 Four controlled long-term trials using untrained women,20 trained men,21 or untrained older adults found that creatine improved gains made in strength and lean body mass from weight-training programs.22, 23 However, two controlled trials found no advantage of long-term creatine supplementation in weight-training football players.24, 25

Creatine supplementation appears to increase body weight and lean body mass or fat-free mass, but these measurements do not distinguish between muscle growth and increased water content of muscle.26, 27 A few double-blind studies using more specific muscle measurements have been done and found that combining creatine supplementation with strength training over several weeks does produce greater increases in muscle size compared with strength training alone.28, 29, 30

References

1. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 1994;266:E725-30.

2. Greenhaff PL. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr 1995;5:94-101.

3. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992;83:367-74.

4. Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202.

5. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

6. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

7. Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, Spinks WL, Walshe AD. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:26-33.

8. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

9. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

10. Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, et al. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002;18:397-402.

11. Cottrell GT, Coast JR, Herb RA. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:109-16.

12. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:332-43.

13. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

14. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

15. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

16. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

17. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

18. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:332-43.

19. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

20. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63.

21. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8.

22. Brose A, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58:11-9.

23. Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, Chad KE Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:2111-7.

24. Stout JR, Eckerson J, Noonan D, et al. The effects of a supplement designed to augment creatine uptake on exercise performance and fat-free mass in football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:S251 [abstract].

25. Wilder N, Gilders R, Hagerman F, Deivert RG. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:343-52.

26. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

27. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

28. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1147-56.

29. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8.

30. Willoughby DS, Rosene J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1674-81.

Athletic Performance and High-Intensity, Short Duration Exercise or Sports with Alternating Low- and High-Intensity Efforts
Dose: 15 to 20 grams a day for five or six days

Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is used in muscle tissue for the production of phosphocreatine, a factor in the formation of ATP, the source of energy for muscle contraction and many other functions in the body.1, 2 Creatine supplementation increases phosphocreatine levels in muscle, especially when accompanied by exercise or carbohydrate intake.3, 4 It may also increase exercise-related gains in lean body mass, though it is unclear how much of these gains represents added muscle tissue and how much is simply water retention.5

Over 40 double-blind or controlled studies have found creatine supplementation (typically 136 mg per pound of body weight per day or 15 to 25 grams per day for five or six days) improves performance of either single or repetitive bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise lasting under 30 seconds each.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Examples of this type of exercise include weightlifting; sprinting by runners, cyclists, or swimmers; and many types of athletic training regimens for speed and power. About 15 studies did not report enhancement by creatine of this type of performance. These have been criticized for their small size and other research design problems, but it is possible that some people, especially elite athletes, are less likely to benefit greatly from creatine supplementation.13

Fewer studies have investigated whether creatine supplementation benefits continuous high- intensity exercise lasting 30 seconds or longer. Five controlled studies have found creatine beneficial for this type of exercise,14 but one study found no benefit on performance of a military obstacle course run.15 Most studies of endurance performance have found no advantage of creatine supplementation, except perhaps for non-weight bearing exercise such as cycling. 16, 17, 18

Long-term use of creatine supplementation is typically done using smaller daily amounts (2 to 5 grams per day) after an initial loading period of several days with 20 grams per day. Very little research has been done to investigate the exercise performance effects of long-term creatine supplementation. One study reported that long-term creatine supplementation improved sprint performance.19 Four controlled long-term trials using untrained women,20 trained men,21 or untrained older adults found that creatine improved gains made in strength and lean body mass from weight-training programs.22, 23 However, two controlled trials found no advantage of long-term creatine supplementation in weight-training football players.24, 25

Creatine supplementation appears to increase body weight and lean body mass or fat-free mass, but these measurements do not distinguish between muscle growth and increased water content of muscle.26, 27 A few double-blind studies using more specific muscle measurements have been done and found that combining creatine supplementation with strength training over several weeks does produce greater increases in muscle size compared with strength training alone.28, 29, 30

References

1. Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 1994;266:E725-30.

2. Greenhaff PL. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr 1995;5:94-101.

3. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992;83:367-74.

4. Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202.

5. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

6. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

7. Watsford ML, Murphy AJ, Spinks WL, Walshe AD. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:26-33.

8. van Loon LJ, Oosterlaar AM, Hartgens F. Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:153-62.

9. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

10. Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, et al. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002;18:397-402.

11. Cottrell GT, Coast JR, Herb RA. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:109-16.

12. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, Gorostiaga EM. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:332-43.

13. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

14. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

15. Warber JP, Tharion WJ, Patton JF, et al. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on obstacle course and multiple bench press performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:500-8.

16. Mesa JL, Ruiz JR, Gonzalez-Gross MM, et al. Oral creatine supplementation and skeletal muscle metabolism in physical exercise. Sports Med 2002;32:903-44 [review].

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Creatine (creatine monohydrate) is a colorless, crystalline substance used in muscle tissue for the production of phosphocreatine, an important factor in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the source of energy for muscle contraction and many other functions in the body.1, 2

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