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100 Vegetarian Tablets

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Description
Important for iron absorption*

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Supplement Facts

As a dietary supplement, take one tablet daily. For maximum benefits, take as directed everyday.

Serving Size 1 Tablet
Servings Per Container 100
Amount Per Serving % DV
Copper (as Copper Gluconate) 2.00 mg 100%
** Daily Value (DV) not established

Other Ingredients: Dicalcium Phosphate, Cellulose

No sugar, no artificial colors, no artificial flavors, no preservatives, sodium free, no wheat, no gluten, no corn, no soy, no dairy, yeast free.

Distributed by: General Nutrition Corporation Pittsburgh, PA 15222

Health Notes

Copper

Copper
This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Wound Healing
Dose: 2 to 4 mg daily
Copper plays a role in the strengthening of connective tissue and may help promote wound healing.(more)
Burns
Dose: Refer to label instructions
(more)
Sprains and Strains
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Trace minerals, such as copper, are known to be important in the biochemistry of tissue healing.(more)
Wound Healing
Dose: 2 to 4 mg daily
Copper plays a role in the strengthening of connective tissue and may help promote wound healing.(more)
Burns
Dose: Refer to label instructions
(more)
High Cholesterol
Dose: 3 to 4 mg daily
Copper deficiency has been linked to high blood cholesterol, supplementing with it may correct a deficiency and lower cholesterol.(more)
Anemia
Dose: If deficient: 2 to 3 mg daily
Copper deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this mineral may restore levels and improve symptoms.(more)
Cardiac Arrhythmia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with copper may reduce the frequency of abnormal heartbeats.(more)
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Copper is required for normal artery structure, and deficiency of the vitamin may lead to weak aortic walls and aorta rupture. Supplementing with copper may combat deficiency.(more)
Osteoporosis
Dose: 2 to 3 mg daily
Copper is needed for normal bone synthesis, and one trial reported that copper reduced bone loss.(more)
Athletic Performance
Dose: Refer to label instructions
In one trial a combination of zinc and copper significantly reduced evidence of post-exercise free radical activity.(more)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
If you are taking large amounts of zinc (such as 30 mg per day or more) for BHP, most doctors recommend supplementing with copper to avoid copper deficiency.(more)
Hypoglycemia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Copper helps control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, and since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, it may be helpful for hypoglycemia as well.(more)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Dose: Refer to label instructions
People with rheumatoid arthritis tend to be deficient in copper, which acts as an anti-inflammatory agent needed to activate an enzyme that protects joints from inflammation.(more)
Wound Healing
Dose: 2 to 4 mg daily

Copper is a required cofactor for the enzyme lysyl oxidase, which plays a role in the cross-linking (and strengthening) of connective tissue.1 Doctors often recommend a copper supplement as part of a comprehensive nutritional program to promote wound healing. A typical amount recommended is 2-4 mg per day, beginning two weeks prior to surgery and continuing for four weeks after surgery.

References

1. Rucker RB, Kosonen T, Clegg MS, et al. Copper lysyl oxidase, and extracellular matrix protein cross-linking. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(5 suppl):996s-1002s.

Burns
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In a double-blind trial, daily intravenous administration of the trace minerals zinc, copper, and selenium to patients hospitalized with extensive burns significantly decreased the number of postburn infections and increased the rate of healing.1

References

1. Berger MM, Baines M, Raffoul W, et al. Trace element supplementation after major burns modulates antioxidant status and clinical course by way of increased tissue trace element concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1293-300.

Sprains and Strains
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Zinc is a component of many enzymes, including some that are needed to repair wounds. Even a mild deficiency of zinc can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage as well as from more serious trauma.1 Trace minerals, such as manganese, copper, and silicon are also known to be important in the biochemistry of tissue healing.2, 3, 4, 5 However, there have been no controlled studies of people with sprains or strains to explore the effect of deficiency of these minerals, or of oral supplementation, on the rate of healing.

References

1. Sandstead HH. Understanding zinc: Recent observations and interpretations. J Lab Clin Med 1994;124:322-7.

2. Tenaud I, Sainte-Marie I, Jumbou O, et al. In vitro modulation of keratinocyte wound healing integrins by zinc, copper and manganese. Br J Dermatol 1999;140:26-34.

3. Pereira CE, Felcman J. Correlation between five minerals and the healing effect of Brazilian medicinal plants. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998;65:251-9.

4. Carlisle EM. Silicon as an essential trace element in animal nutrition. Ciba Found Symp 1986;121:123-39.

5. Leach RM. Role of manganese in mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Fed Proc 1971;30:991.

Wound Healing
Dose: 2 to 4 mg daily

Copper is a required cofactor for the enzyme lysyl oxidase, which plays a role in the cross-linking (and strengthening) of connective tissue.1 Doctors often recommend a copper supplement as part of a comprehensive nutritional program to promote wound healing. A typical amount recommended is 2-4 mg per day, beginning two weeks prior to surgery and continuing for four weeks after surgery.

References

1. Rucker RB, Kosonen T, Clegg MS, et al. Copper lysyl oxidase, and extracellular matrix protein cross-linking. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(5 suppl):996s-1002s.

Burns
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In a double-blind trial, daily intravenous administration of the trace minerals zinc, copper, and selenium to patients hospitalized with extensive burns significantly decreased the number of postburn infections and increased the rate of healing.1

References

1. Berger MM, Baines M, Raffoul W, et al. Trace element supplementation after major burns modulates antioxidant status and clinical course by way of increased tissue trace element concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1293-300.

High Cholesterol
Dose: 3 to 4 mg dailyDeficiency of the trace mineral copper has been linked to high blood cholesterol.1, 2 In a controlled trial, daily supplementation with 3 to 4 mg of copper for eight weeks decreased blood levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, in a group of people over 50 years of age.3
References

1. Davis GK, Mertz W. Copper. In: Mertz W, ed. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, vol. 1. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1987, 301-64 [review].

2. Klevay LM. Dietary copper: a powerful determinant of cholesterolemia. Med Hypotheses 1987;24:111-9 [review].

3. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.

Anemia
Dose: If deficient: 2 to 3 mg daily

Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.1 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A,2, 3vitamin B2,4vitamin B6,5, 6vitamin C,7 and copper,8, 9 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1.10, 11

References

1. Little DR. Ambulatory management of common forms of anemia. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1598-604 [review].

2. Hodges RE, Sauberlich HE, Canham JE, et al. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:876-85 [review].

3. Bloem MW. Interdependence of vitamin A and iron: an important association for programmes of anaemia control. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:501-8 [review].

4. Lane M, Alfrey CP. The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 1965;25:432-42.

5. Orehek AJ, Kollas CD. Refractory postpartum anemia due to vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):834-5 [letter].

6. Iwama H, Iwase O, Hayashi S, et al. Macrocytic anemia with anisocytosis due to alcohol abuse and vitamin B6 deficiency. Rinsho Ketsueki 1998;39:1127-30 [in Japanese].

7. Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ. Adult scurvy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:895-906 [review].

8. Summerfield AL, Steinberg FU, Gonzalez JG. Morphologic findings in bone marrow precursor cells in zinc-induced copper deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:665-8.

9. Freycon F, Pouyau G. Rare nutritional deficiency anemia: deficiency of copper and vitamin E. Sem Hop 1983;59:488-93 [review] [in French].

10. Borgna-Pignatti C, Marradi P, Pinelli L, et al. Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome. J Pediatr 1989;114:405-10.

11. Neufeld EJ, Mandel H, Raz T, et al. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:1335-41.

Cardiac Arrhythmia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Three cases have been reported in which ventricular premature beats disappeared after supplementation with copper (4 mg per day in the two cases for which amounts were reported).1 In one of these people, supplementing with zinc made the arrhythmia worse, confirming previous observations that excessive zinc intake may lead to copper deficiency,2 which in turn may lead to arrhythmia.

References

1. Spencer JC. Direct relationship between the body's copper/zinc ratio, ventricular premature beats and sudden cardiac death. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:1184-5 [letter].

2. Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, Love AH. Anaemia and low serum-copper during zinc therapy. Lancet 1977;2:774 [letter].

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Copper is required for normal artery structure.1 Animal studies have shown that copper deficiency leads to weak aortic walls2 and rupture of the aorta.3 Combating deficiency with copper supplements prevented rupture in an animal study.4 Copper deficiency in humans with AAA has been suggested in some studies,5, 6 but not in others.7, 8, 9 No studies have been done using copper supplements to prevent or manage aneurysms.

References

1. Hill CH. A role of copper in elastin formation. Nutr Rev 1969;27:99-100 [review].

2. Greene FL, Lamb LS, Barwick M, Pappas NJ. Effect of dietary copper on colonic tumor production and aortic integrity in the rat. J Surg Res 1987;42:503-12.

3. Vanhooser SL, Stair E, Edwards WC, et al. Aortic rupture in ostrich associated with copper deficiency. Vet Hum Toxicol 1994;36:226-7.

4. Guenthner E, Carlson CW, Emerick RJ. Copper salts for growth stimulation and alleviation of aortic rupture losses in turkeys. Poult Sci 1978;57:1313-24.

5. Tilson MD. Decreased hepatic copper levels. A possible chemical marker for the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms in man. Arch Surg 1982;117:1212-3.

6. Tilson MD, Davis G. Deficiencies of copper and a compound with ion-exchange characteristics of pyridinoline in skin from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Surgery 1983;94:134-41.

7. Senapati A, Carlsson LK, Fletcher CD, et al. Is tissue copper deficiency associated with aortic aneurysms? Br J Surg 1985;72:352-3.

8. Dubick MA, Hunter GC, Casey SM, Keen CL. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1987;184:138-43.

9. Jaakkola P, Hippelainen M, Kantola M. Copper and zinc concentrations of abdominal aorta and liver in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm or aortoiliacal occlusive disease. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1994;83:304-8.

Osteoporosis
Dose: 2 to 3 mg daily

Copper is needed for normal bone synthesis. Recently, a two-year, controlled trial reported that 3 mg of copper per day reduced bone loss.1 When taken over a shorter period of time (six weeks), the same level of copper supplementation had no effect on biochemical markers of bone loss.2 Some doctors recommend 2 to 3 mg of copper per day, particularly if zinc is also being taken, in order to prevent a deficiency. Supplemental zinc significantly depletes copper stores, so people taking zinc supplements for more than a few weeks generally need to supplement with copper also. Calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper are sometimes found at appropriate levels in high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplements.

One trial studying postmenopausal women combined hormone replacement therapy with magnesium (600 mg per day), calcium (500 mg per day), vitamin C, B vitamins, vitamin D, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, and other nutrients for an eight- to nine-month period.3 In addition, participants were told to avoid processed foods, limit protein intake, emphasize vegetable over animal protein, and limit consumption of salt, sugar, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and tobacco. Bone density increased a remarkable 11%, compared to only 0.7% in women receiving hormone replacement alone.

References

1. Eaton-Evans J, McIlrath EM, Jackson WE, et al. Copper supplementation and bone-mineral density in middle-aged women. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:191A.

2. Baker A, Turley E, Bonham MP, et al. No effect of copper supplementation on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy adults. Br J Nutr 1999;82:283-90.

3. Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. J Reprod Med 1990;35:503-7.

Athletic Performance
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In one double-blind trial a combination of 50 mg per day of zinc and 3 mg per day of copper significantly reduced evidence of post-exercise free radical activity.1

Exercise increases zinc losses from the human body, and severe zinc deficiency can compromise muscle function.2, 3 Athletes who do not eat an optimal diet, especially those who are trying to control their weight or use fad diets while exercising strenuously, may become deficient in zinc to the extent that performance or health is compromised.4, 5 One double-blind trial in women found that 135 mg per day of zinc for two weeks improved one measure of muscle strength.6 Whether these women were zinc deficient was not determined in this study. A double-blind study of male athletes with low blood levels of zinc found that 20 mg per day of zinc improved the flexibility of the red blood cells during exercise, which could benefit blood flow to the muscles.7 No other studies of the effects of zinc supplementation in exercising people have been done. A safe amount of zinc for long-term use is 20 to 40 mg per day along with 1 to 2 mg of copper. Higher amounts should be taken only under the supervision of a doctor.

References

1. Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA. Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:2298-303.

2. Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:585S-93S [review].

3. Van Loan MD, Sutherland B, Lowe NM, et al. The effects of zinc depletion on peak force and total work of knee and shoulder extensor and flexor muscles. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:125-35.

4. Manore MM. Dietary recommendations and athletic menstrual dysfunction. Sports Med 2002;32:887-901 [review].

5. Micheletti A, Rossi R, Rufini S. Zinc status in athletes: relation to diet and exercise. Sports Med 2001;31:577-82 [review].

6. Krotkiewski M, Gudmundsson M, Backstrom P, Mandroukas K. Zinc and muscle strength and endurance. Acta Physiol Scand 1982;116:309-11.

7. Khaled S, Brun JF, Cassanas G, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on blood rheology during exercise. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 1999;20:1-10.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Prostatic secretions are known to contain a high concentration of zinc; that observation suggests that zinc plays a role in normal prostate function. In one preliminary study, 19 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia took 150 mg of zinc daily for two months, and then 50 to 100 mg daily. In 74% of the men, the prostate became smaller.1 Because this study did not include a control group, improvements may have been due to a placebo effect. Zinc also reduced prostatic size in an animal study but only when given by local injection.2 Although the research supporting the use of zinc is weak, many doctors recommend its use. Because supplementing with large amounts of zinc (such as 30 mg per day or more) may potentially lead to copper deficiency, most doctors recommend taking 2 to 3 mg of copper per day along with zinc.

References

1. Bush IM, Berman E, Nourkayhan S, et al. Zinc and the prostate. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association Chicago, 1974.

2. Fahim MS, Fahim Z, Der R, Harman J. Zinc treatment for reduction of hyperplasia of prostate. Fed Proc 1976;35(3):361.

Hypoglycemia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Research has shown that supplementing with chromium (200 mcg per day)1 or magnesium (340 mg per day)2 can prevent blood sugar levels from falling excessively in people with hypoglycemia. Niacinamide (vitamin B3) has also been found to be helpful for hypoglycemic people.3 Other nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin B6, may help control blood sugar levels in diabetics.4 Since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, these nutrients might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well, although the amounts needed for that purpose are not known.

References

1. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

2. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131-4.

3. Shansky A. Vitamin B3 in the alleviation of hypoglycemia. Drug Cosm Ind 1981;129(4):68-69,104-5.

4. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional regulation of blood glucose. J Advancement Med 1991;4:57-71.

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Copper acts as an anti-inflammatory agent needed to activate superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that protects joints from inflammation. People with RA tend toward copper deficiency1 and copper supplementation has been shown to increase SOD levels in humans.2 The Journal of the American Medical Association quoted one researcher as saying that while "Regular aspirin had 6% the anti-inflammatory activity of [cortisone] . . . copper [when added to aspirin] had 130% the activity [of cortisone]."3

Several copper compounds have been used successfully in treating people with RA,4 and a controlled trial using copper bracelets reported surprisingly effective results compared with the effect of placebo bracelets.5 Under certain circumstances, however, copper can increase inflammation in rheumatoid joints.6 Moreover, the form of copper most consistently reported to be effective, copper aspirinate (a combination of copper and aspirin), is not readily available. Nonetheless, some doctors suggest a trial of 1-3 mg of copper per day for at least several months.

References

1. DiSilvestro RA, Marten J, Skehan M. Effects of copper supplementation on ceruloplasmin and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in free-living rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:177-80.

2. Jones AA, DiSilvestro RA, Coleman M, Wagner TL. Copper supplementation of adult men: effects on blood copper enzyme activities and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Metabolism 1997;46:1380-3.

3. Medical News. Copper boosts activity of anti-inflammatory drugs. JAMA 1974;229:1268-9.

4. Sorenson JRJ. Copper complexes-a unique class of anti-arthritic drugs. Progress Med Chem 1978;15:211-60 [review].

5. Walker WR, Keats DM. An investigation of the therapeutic value of the 'copper bracelet'-dermal assimilation of copper in arthritic/rheumatoid conditions. Agents Actions 1976;6:454-9.

6. Blake DR, Lunec J. Copper, iron, free radicals and arthritis. Brit J Rheumatol 1985;24:123-7 [editorial].

Copper is an essential trace element present in the diet and in the human body. It is needed to absorb and utilize iron. It is also part of the antioxidantenzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Copper is needed to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy the body runs on. Synthesis of some hormones requires copper, as does the synthesis of collagen (the "glue" that holds connective tissue together). In addition, the enzyme, tyrosinase, which plays a role in the production of skin pigment, requires copper to function.

Copyright 2014 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com

The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.

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