Nature's Answer® Bio-Flavonoids 15,000mg

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Description

Discover Natures Answer and trust the difference...™
The true nature of our standards go way beyond the herb...™
Advanced Botanical Fingerprint Technology
from Rose Hip, Orange Peel & Lemon Peel

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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Supplement Facts

Serving Size 3 teaspoon(s)
Servings Per Container 16
Amount Per Serving % DV
Proprietary Bioflavonoids Extract Blend 68000.00 mg **
** Daily Value (DV) not established

Product Directions / Additional Info

As dietary supplement, take 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15mL) once a day in a small amount of water.

Other Ingredients: Purified Water, Vegetable Glycerin, 12-15% Certified Organic Alcohol

Storage Instructions: Store in cool, dry place.

Warning: Keep out of reach of children

Do not use if safety seal is broken or missing.

Do not use if you are pregnant or nursing. If you are taking any medications, planning any medical procedure or have a medical condition, consult with your healthcare practioner before use.

Nature's Answer™Hauppauge, NY 117888

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Health Notes

Flavonoids

Flavonoids
This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Cold Sores
Dose: 200 mg with 200 mg flavonoids, three to five times daily
Vitamin C plus flavonoids may help speed cold sore healing. (more)
Gingivitis
Dose: 300 mg of vitamin C, plus 300 mg of flavonoids daily
In one study, supplementing with vitamin C plus flavonoids improved gum health in a group of people with gingivitis.(more)
Gingivitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Shown to be effective against gingivitis when taken with vitamin C, flavonoids also appear to be effective by themselves at reducing gum inflammation.(more)
Hemorrhoids
Dose: 600 to 4,000 mg hydroxyethylrutosides daily or 1 to 3 grams of a mixture of 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin
Supplementing with flavonoids may reduce symptoms. A number of flavonoids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and to strengthen blood vessels(more)
Bruising
Dose: 400 to 800 mg hesperidin with vitamin C daily
Flavonoids are often recommended with vitamin C. Flavonoids are vitamin-like substances that can help strengthen capillaries and therefore may also help with bruising.(more)
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Dose: 500 mg hydroxyethylrutosides twice per day
Flavonoids strengthen capillaries. A flavonoid derived from rutin, called HR, has been shown to be effective in clearing leg swelling and reducing other CVI symptoms.(more)
Hypertension
Dose: 300 mg per day of hesperidin, for 4 weeks
A study has found that hesperidin, a flavonoid found primarily in oranges and other citrus fruits, decreased diastolic blood pressure in healthy, overweight males.(more)
Varicose Veins
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Taking hydroxyethylrutoside may help reduce the size of varicose veins associated with pregnancy.(more)
Capillary Fragility
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Flavonoids may help strengthen weakened capillaries, possibly by protecting collagen, one of the most important components of capillary walls.(more)
Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 200 mg niacin daily, 300 mg vitamin C daily, and 60 mg rutin daily througout menstrual cycle; for cramps: 100 mg niacin every two to three hours
Supplementing with a combination of vitamin B3, vitamin C, and the flavonoid rutin resulted in a 90% effectiveness for relieving menstrual cramps in one study.(more)
Menorrhagia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Flavonoids protect capillaries (small blood vessels) from damage. In so doing, they might protect against the blood loss of menorrhagia.(more)
Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 200 mg niacin daily, 300 mg vitamin C daily, and 60 mg rutin daily througout menstrual cycle; for cramps: 100 mg niacin every two to three hours
Supplementing with a combination of vitamin B3, vitamin C, and the flavonoid rutin resulted in a 90% effectiveness for relieving menstrual cramps in one study.(more)
Menopause
Dose: Refer to label instructions
A preliminary trial reported that a combination of vitamin C and the flavonoid hesperidin helped relieve hot flashes in menopausal women.(more)
Menorrhagia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Flavonoids protect capillaries (small blood vessels) from damage. In so doing, they might protect against the blood loss of menorrhagia.(more)
Cold Sores
Dose: 200 mg with 200 mg flavonoids, three to five times daily
Vitamin C plus flavonoids may help speed cold sore healing. (more)
Allergies and Sensitivities
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Test tube and animal studies have found some effects from natural antihistamines such as flavonoids, though no clinical research has shown whether these substances can specifically reduce allergic reactions. (more)
Menopause
Dose: Refer to label instructions
A preliminary trial reported that a combination of vitamin C and the flavonoid hesperidin helped relieve hot flashes in menopausal women.(more)
Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Quercetin has been shown to inhibit aldose reductase, an enzyme that appears to contribute worsen diabetic retinopathy. Another flavonoid, rutin, may also improve retinopathy.(more)
Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Quercetin has been shown to inhibit aldose reductase, an enzyme that appears to contribute worsen diabetic retinopathy. Another flavonoid, rutin, may also improve retinopathy.(more)
Glaucoma
Dose: Refer to label instructions
The flavonoid rutin may increase the effectiveness of conventional medication in people with glaucoma.(more)
Meniere's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Certain flavonoids, known as hydroxyethylrutosides, have been reported to improve symptoms of Meniere's disease, including hearing problems.(more)
Skin Ulcers
Dose: 900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day of hesperidin
One trial found that a combination of the flavonoids diosmin and hesperidin promoted healing of venous leg ulcers. Hydroxyethylrutosides (related flavonoids) may also help.(more)
Skin Ulcers
Dose: 2,000 mg per day
(more)
Measles
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Flavonoids are nutrients found in the white, pithy parts of fruits and vegetables. Certain flavonoids have been found to inhibit the infectivity of measles virus in the test tube.(more)
Cold Sores
Dose: 200 mg with 200 mg flavonoids, three to five times daily

Vitamin C has been shown to inactivate herpes viruses in the test tube.1 In one study, people with herpes infections received either a placebo or 200 mg of vitamin C plus 200 mg of flavonoids, each taken three to five times per day. Compared with the placebo, vitamin C and flavonoids reduced the duration of symptoms by 57%.2

References

1. Holden M, Molloy E. Further experiments on the inactivation of herpes virus by vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). J Immunol 1937;33:251-7.

2. Terezhalmy GT, Bottomley WK, Pelleu GB. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg 1978;45:56-62.

Gingivitis
Dose: 300 mg of vitamin C, plus 300 mg of flavonoids daily

People who are deficient in vitamin C may be at increased risk for periodontal disease.1 When a group of people with periodontitis who normally consumed only 20-35 mg of vitamin C per day were given an additional 70 mg per day, objective improvement of periodontal tissue occurred in only six weeks.2 It makes sense for people who have a low vitamin C intake (e.g., people who eat few fruits and vegetables) to supplement with vitamin C in order to improve gingival health.

For people who consume adequate amounts of vitamin C in their diet, several studies have found that supplemental vitamin C has no additional therapeutic effect. Research,3 including double-blind evidence,4 shows that vitamin C fails to significantly reduce gingival inflammation in people who are not vitamin C deficient. In one study, administration of vitamin C plus flavonoids (300 mg per day of each) did improve gingival health in a group of people with gingivitis;5 there was less improvement, however, when vitamin C was given without flavonoids. Preliminary evidence has suggested that flavonoids by themselves may reduce inflammation of the gums.6

References

1. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

2. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

3. Woolfe SN, Kenney EB, Hume WR, Carranza FA Jr. Relationship of ascorbic acid levels of blood and gingival tissue with response to periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:159-65.

4. Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, et al. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986;57:472-9.

5. El-Ashiry GM, Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin E. Local and systemic influences in periodontal disease. II. Effect of prophylaxis and natural versus synthetic vitamin C upon gingivitis. J Periodontol 1964;35:250-9.

6. Carvel I, Halperin V. Therapeutic effect of water soluble bioflavonoids in gingival inflammatory conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961;14:847-55.

Gingivitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions

People who are deficient in vitamin C may be at increased risk for periodontal disease.1 When a group of people with periodontitis who normally consumed only 20-35 mg of vitamin C per day were given an additional 70 mg per day, objective improvement of periodontal tissue occurred in only six weeks.2 It makes sense for people who have a low vitamin C intake (e.g., people who eat few fruits and vegetables) to supplement with vitamin C in order to improve gingival health.

For people who consume adequate amounts of vitamin C in their diet, several studies have found that supplemental vitamin C has no additional therapeutic effect. Research,3 including double-blind evidence,4 shows that vitamin C fails to significantly reduce gingival inflammation in people who are not vitamin C deficient. In one study, administration of vitamin C plus flavonoids (300 mg per day of each) did improve gingival health in a group of people with gingivitis;5 there was less improvement, however, when vitamin C was given without flavonoids. Preliminary evidence has suggested that flavonoids by themselves may reduce inflammation of the gums.6

References

1. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

2. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

3. Woolfe SN, Kenney EB, Hume WR, Carranza FA Jr. Relationship of ascorbic acid levels of blood and gingival tissue with response to periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:159-65.

4. Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, et al. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986;57:472-9.

5. El-Ashiry GM, Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin E. Local and systemic influences in periodontal disease. II. Effect of prophylaxis and natural versus synthetic vitamin C upon gingivitis. J Periodontol 1964;35:250-9.

6. Carvel I, Halperin V. Therapeutic effect of water soluble bioflavonoids in gingival inflammatory conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961;14:847-55.

Hemorrhoids
Dose: 600 to 4,000 mg hydroxyethylrutosides daily or 1 to 3 grams of a mixture of 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin

A number of flavonoids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and/or to strengthen blood vessels. These effects could, in theory, be beneficial for people with hemorrhoids. Most,1, 2, 3, 4 but not all,5 double-blind trials using a group of semisynthetic flavonoids (hydroxyethylrutosides derived from rutin) have demonstrated significant improvements in itching, bleeding, and other symptoms associated with hemorrhoids when people used supplements of 600-4,000 mg per day.

Other trials have evaluated Daflon, a product containing the food-derived flavonoids diosmin (90%) and hesperidin (10%). An uncontrolled trial reported that Daflon produced symptom relief in two-thirds of pregnant women with hemorrhoids.6 Double-blind trials have produced conflicting results about the effects of Daflon in people with hemorrhoids.7, 8 Amounts of flavonoids used in Daflon trials ranged from 1,000 to 3,000 mg per day. Diosmin and hesperidin are available separately as dietary supplements.

Some doctors recommend flavonoid supplements for people with hemorrhoids. However, many different flavonoids occur in food and supplements, and additional research is needed to determine which flavonoids are most effective against hemorrhoids.

References

1. Sinnatamby CS. The treatment of hemorrhoids. Role of hydroxyethylrutosides, troxerutin (Paroven; Varmoid; Venoruton). Clin Trials J 1973;2:45-50.

2. Clyne MB, Freeling P, Ginsborg S. Troxerutin in the treatment of haemorrhoids. Practitioner 1967;198:420-3.

3. Annoni F, Boccasanta P, Chiurazzi D, et al. Treatment of acute symptoms of hemorrhoid disease with high-dose oral O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides. Minerva Med 1986;77:1663-8 [in Italian].

4. Wijayanegara H, Mose JC, Achmad L, et al. A clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of haemorrhoids of pregnancy. J Int Med Res 1992;20:54-60.

5. Thorp RH, Hughes ESR. A clinical trial of trihydroxyethylrutoside ("Varemoid") in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Med J Aust 1970;2:1076-8.

6. Buckshee K, Takkar D, Aggarwal N. Micronized flavonoid therapy in internal hemorrhoids of pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1997;57:145-51.

7. Cospite M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of clinical activity and safety of Daflon 500 mg in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. Angiology 1994;45:566-73.

8. Thanapongsathorn W, Vajrabukka T. Clinical trial of oral diosmin (Daflon) in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:1085-8.

Bruising
Dose: 400 to 800 mg hesperidin with vitamin C daily

Doctors often suggest that people who experience easy bruising supplement with 100 mg to 3 grams of vitamin C per day for several months. Controlled research is limited, but vitamin C supplements have been shown to reduce bruising in people with low vitamin C intake.1Flavonoids are often recommended along with vitamin C. Flavonoids are vitamin-like substances that can help strengthen capillaries and therefore may also help with bruising.2 Flavonoids may also increase the effectiveness of vitamin C; citrus flavonoids, in particular, improve the absorption of vitamin C. Older preliminary research suggested that vitamin C, 400-800 mg per day, in combination with 400-800 mg per day of the flavonoid, hesperidin, reduced bruising in menopausal women.3 A small, preliminary trial in Germany gave three people with progressive pigmented purpura (a chronic bruising disorder) 1,000 mg per day of vitamin C and 100 mg per day of the flavonoid rutoside. After four weeks, noticeable bruising was no longer apparent and did not recur in the three month period after treatment was stopped.4 Controlled research is needed to better establish whether vitamin C and flavonoids are effective for easy bruising.

References

1. Schorah CJ, Tormey WP, Brooks GH, et al. The effect of vitamin C supplements on body weight, serum proteins, and general health of an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:871-6.

2. Shamrai EF. Vitamin P. Its chemical nature and mechanism of physiologic action. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii 1968;65:186-201.

3. Horoschak A. Nocturnal leg cramps, easy bruisability and epistaxis in menopausal patients: treated with hesperidin and ascorbic acid. Delaware State Med J 1959;Jan:19-22.

4. Reinhold U, Seiter S, Ugurel S, Tilgen W. Treatment of progressive pigmented purpura with oral bioflavonoids and ascorbic acid: an open pilot study in 3 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:207-8.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Dose: 500 mg hydroxyethylrutosides twice per day

Flavonoids promote venous strength and integrity. Most trials of flavonoids in patients with CVI have used a type of flavonoid called hydroxyethylrutosides (HR), which is derived from rutin. These double-blind and other controlled trials have consistently shown a beneficial effect of HR in clearing leg swelling and other signs of CVI.1, 2, 3 Positive results from a double-blind trial have been obtained using 500 mg of HR taken twice per day for 12 weeks.4 In this trial, the preparation was found to add further benefit to that provided by compression stockings commonly used to treat CVI. Similar results were obtained in another controlled trial.5 It is unclear whether other flavonoids are as effective as HR for CVI. HR has also been used successfully as a topical preparation for the treatment of CVI.6

References

1. Rehn D, Brunnauer H, Diebschlag W, Lehmacher W. Investigation of the therapeutic equivalence of different galenical preparations of O-(s-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides following multiple dose per oral administration. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:488-92.

2. Bergqvist D, Hallbook T, Lindblad B, Lindhagen A. A double-blind trial of O-(s-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Vasa 1981;10:253-60.

3. Poynard T, Valterio C. Meta-analysis of hydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Vasa 1994;23:244-50.

4. Unkauf M, Rehn D, Klinger J, et al. Investigation of the efficacy of oxerutins compared to placebo in patients with chronic venous insufficiency treated with compression stockings. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:478-82.

5. Neumann HA, van den Broek MJ. A comparative clinical trial of graduated compression stockings and O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR) in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Z Lymphol 1995;19:8-11.

6. Frick RW. Three treatments for chronic venous insufficiency: escin, hydroxyethylrutoside, and Daflon. Angiology 2000;51:197-205 [review].

Hypertension
Dose: 300 mg per day of hesperidin, for 4 weeks Hesperidin is a flavonoid found primarily in oranges and other citrus fruits. In a placebo-controlled trial, supplementation with approximately 300 mg per day of hesperidin for 4 weeks significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure by an average of 3.2 mm Hg in healthy, overweight males. Hesperidin had no effect on systolic blood pressure.1
References

1. Morand C, Dubray C, Milenkovic D, et al. Hesperidin contributes to the vascular protective effects of orange juice: a randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:73-80.

Varicose Veins
Dose: Refer to label instructions

A controlled clinical trial found that oral supplementation with hydroxyethylrutosides (HR), a type of flavonoid that is derived from rutin, improved varicose veins in a group of pregnant women.1 Further research is needed to confirm the benefits observed in this preliminary trial. A typical amount of HR is 1000 mg per day.

References

1. Sohn C, Jahnichen C, Bastert G. [Effectiveness of beta-hydroxyethylrutoside in patients with varicose veins in pregnancy]. Zentralbl Gynakol 1995;117:190-7 [in German].

Capillary Fragility
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Compounds called flavonoids may help strengthen weakened capillaries. In test tube and animal studies, they have been shown to protect collagen, one of the most important components of capillary walls.1, 2 A preliminary study found that proanthocyanidins (flavonoids extracted from grape seeds), 150 mg per day, increased capillary strength in people with hypertension and/or diabetes.3 A double-blind trial found a combination of two flavonoids (900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day hesperidin) for six weeks reduced symptoms of capillary fragility.4 Use of vitamin C with flavonoids, particularly quercetin, rutin, and hesperidin, is sometimes recommended for capillary fragility.5 Doctors often recommend 400 mg of rutin or quercetin three times per day or 1 gram of citrus flavonoids three times per day.

References

1. Schlebusch H, Kern D. Stabilization of collagen by polyphenols. Angiologica 1972;9:248-56 [in German].

2. Monboisse J, Braquet P, Randoux A, Borel J. Non-enzymatic degradation of acid-soluble calf skin collagen by superoxide ion: protective effect of flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 1983;32:53-8.

3. Lagrue G, Olivier-Martin F, Grillot A. A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies. Sem Hop 1981;57:1399-401 [in French].

4. Galley P, Thiollet M. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol 1993;12:69-72.

5. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Andover: Intercept Ltd., 1995, 277.

Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 200 mg niacin daily, 300 mg vitamin C daily, and 60 mg rutin daily througout menstrual cycle; for cramps: 100 mg niacin every two to three hoursThe niacin form of vitamin B3 has been reported to be effective in relieving menstrual cramps in 87% of a group of women taking 200 mg of niacin per day throughout the menstrual cycle.1 They then took 100 mg every two or three hours while experiencing menstrual cramps.2 In a follow-up study, this protocol was combined with 300 mg of vitamin C and 60 mg of the flavonoid rutin per day, which resulted in a 90% effectiveness for relieving menstrual cramps. Since these two preliminary studies were published many years ago, no further research has explored the relationship between niacin and dysmenorrhea. Niacin may not be effective unless taken for seven to ten days before the onset of menstrual flow.
References

1. Hudgins AP. Am Practice Digest Treat 1952;3:892-3.

2. Hudgins AP. Vitamins P, C and niacin for dysmenorrhea therapy. West J Surg 1954;Dec:610-1.

Menorrhagia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Both vitamin C and flavonoids protect capillaries (small blood vessels) from damage. In so doing, they might protect against the blood loss of menorrhagia. In one small study, 88% of women with menorrhagia improved when given 200 mg vitamin C and 200 mg flavonoids three times per day.1 In another study, 70% of women with excessive menstrual bleeding experienced at least a 50% reduction in bleeding after taking a flavonoid product.2 The preparation used in this study contained 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin and was given in the amount of 1,000 mg per day, beginning five days prior to the expected start of menstruation and continuing until the end of bleeding for three cycles.

References

1. Cohen JD, Rubin HW. Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C. Curr Ther ResClin Exp 1960;2:539-42.

2. Mukherjee GG, Gajaraj AJ, Mathias J, Marya D. Treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding with micronized flavonoids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet2005;89:156-7.

Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 200 mg niacin daily, 300 mg vitamin C daily, and 60 mg rutin daily througout menstrual cycle; for cramps: 100 mg niacin every two to three hoursThe niacin form of vitamin B3 has been reported to be effective in relieving menstrual cramps in 87% of a group of women taking 200 mg of niacin per day throughout the menstrual cycle.1 They then took 100 mg every two or three hours while experiencing menstrual cramps.2 In a follow-up study, this protocol was combined with 300 mg of vitamin C and 60 mg of the flavonoid rutin per day, which resulted in a 90% effectiveness for relieving menstrual cramps. Since these two preliminary studies were published many years ago, no further research has explored the relationship between niacin and dysmenorrhea. Niacin may not be effective unless taken for seven to ten days before the onset of menstrual flow.
References

1. Hudgins AP. Am Practice Digest Treat 1952;3:892-3.

2. Hudgins AP. Vitamins P, C and niacin for dysmenorrhea therapy. West J Surg 1954;Dec:610-1.

Menopause
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In 1964, a preliminary trial reported that 1,200 mg each of vitamin C and the flavonoid hesperidin taken over the course of the day helped relieve hot flashes.1 Although placebo effects are strong in women with hot flashes, other treatments used in that trial failed to act as effectively as the flavonoid/vitamin C combination. Since then, researchers have not explored the effects of flavonoids or vitamin C in women with menopausal symptoms.

References

1. CJ Smith. Non-hormonal control of vaso-motor flushing in menopausal patients. Chicago Med 1964;67:193-5.

Menorrhagia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Both vitamin C and flavonoids protect capillaries (small blood vessels) from damage. In so doing, they might protect against the blood loss of menorrhagia. In one small study, 88% of women with menorrhagia improved when given 200 mg vitamin C and 200 mg flavonoids three times per day.1 In another study, 70% of women with excessive menstrual bleeding experienced at least a 50% reduction in bleeding after taking a flavonoid product.2 The preparation used in this study contained 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin and was given in the amount of 1,000 mg per day, beginning five days prior to the expected start of menstruation and continuing until the end of bleeding for three cycles.

References

1. Cohen JD, Rubin HW. Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C. Curr Ther ResClin Exp 1960;2:539-42.

2. Mukherjee GG, Gajaraj AJ, Mathias J, Marya D. Treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding with micronized flavonoids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet2005;89:156-7.

Cold Sores
Dose: 200 mg with 200 mg flavonoids, three to five times daily

Vitamin C has been shown to inactivate herpes viruses in the test tube.1 In one study, people with herpes infections received either a placebo or 200 mg of vitamin C plus 200 mg of flavonoids, each taken three to five times per day. Compared with the placebo, vitamin C and flavonoids reduced the duration of symptoms by 57%.2

References

1. Holden M, Molloy E. Further experiments on the inactivation of herpes virus by vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). J Immunol 1937;33:251-7.

2. Terezhalmy GT, Bottomley WK, Pelleu GB. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg 1978;45:56-62.

Allergies and Sensitivities
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Many of the effects of allergic reactions are caused by the release of histamine, which is the reason antihistamine medication is often used by allergy sufferers. Some natural substances, such as vitamin C1, 2 and flavonoids,3 including quercetin,4, 5 have demonstrated antihistamine effects in test tube, animal, and other preliminary studies. However, no research has investigated whether these substances can specifically reduce allergic reactions in humans.

References

1. Johnston CS, Retrum KR, Srilakshmi JC. Antihistamine effects and complications of supplemental vitamin C. J Am Diet Assoc 1992;92:988-9.

2. Johnston S, Martin LJ, Cai X. Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:172-6.

3. Gabor M. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of flavonoids. Prog Clin Biol Res 1986;213:471-80 [review].

4. Middleton E, Drzewieki G. Naturally occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985;77:155-7.

5. Amella M, Bronner C, Briancon F, et al. Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Medica 1985;51:16-20.

Menopause
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In 1964, a preliminary trial reported that 1,200 mg each of vitamin C and the flavonoid hesperidin taken over the course of the day helped relieve hot flashes.1 Although placebo effects are strong in women with hot flashes, other treatments used in that trial failed to act as effectively as the flavonoid/vitamin C combination. Since then, researchers have not explored the effects of flavonoids or vitamin C in women with menopausal symptoms.

References

1. CJ Smith. Non-hormonal control of vaso-motor flushing in menopausal patients. Chicago Med 1964;67:193-5.

Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Quercetin (a flavonoid) has been shown to inhibit the enzyme, aldose reductase.1 This enzyme appears to contribute to worsening of diabetic retinopathy. However, because the absorption of quercetin is limited, it is questionable whether supplementing with quercetin can produce the tissue levels that are needed to inhibit aldose reductase. Although human studies have not been done using quercetin to treat retinopathy, some doctors prescribe 400 mg of quercetin three times per day. Another flavonoid, rutin, has been used with success to treat retinopathy in preliminary research.2

References

1. Varma SD. Inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoids: Possible attenuation of diabetic complications. Progr Clin Biol Res 1986;213:343-58.

2. Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. A randomized, double-masked study on the treatment of retinal vein occlusion with troxerutin. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:421-9.

Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Quercetin (a flavonoid) has been shown to inhibit the enzyme, aldose reductase.1 This enzyme appears to contribute to worsening of diabetic retinopathy. However, because the absorption of quercetin is limited, it is questionable whether supplementing with quercetin can produce the tissue levels that are needed to inhibit aldose reductase. Although human studies have not been done using quercetin to treat retinopathy, some doctors prescribe 400 mg of quercetin three times per day. Another flavonoid, rutin, has been used with success to treat retinopathy in preliminary research.2

References

1. Varma SD. Inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoids: Possible attenuation of diabetic complications. Progr Clin Biol Res 1986;213:343-58.

2. Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. A randomized, double-masked study on the treatment of retinal vein occlusion with troxerutin. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:421-9.

Glaucoma
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Many years ago, the flavonoid rutin was reported to increase the effectiveness of conventional medication in people with glaucoma.1 The amount used-20 mg three times per day-was quite moderate. In that study, 17 of 26 eyes with glaucoma showed clear improvement. Modern research on the effects of rutin or other flavonoids in people with glaucoma is lacking.

References

1. Stocker FW. Clinical experiments with new ways of influencing the intraocular tension. II. Use of rutin to enhance the tension-reducing effect of miotics by reducing the permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier. Arch Ophthalmol 1949;73:429-35.

Meniere's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Certain flavonoids, known as hydroxyethylrutosides (HR), have been reported to improve symptoms of MD in one double-blind study. In this study, 2 grams per day of HR for three months resulted in either stabilization of or improvement in hearing.1 Other types of flavonoids have not been studied as treatments for MD.

Some cases of MD are associated with otosclerosis,2, 3, 4, 5 a disease affecting the small bones of the inner ear. Otosclerosis often goes undiagnosed in people with MD, although the coexistence is well documented.6 While preliminary reports suggest otosclerosis may be a cause of MD,7, 8 the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Sodium fluoride, a mineral compound available only by prescription, is reported to improve otosclerosis.9, 10, 11, 12 In a preliminary study,13 people with MD and otosclerosis were given supplements of 50 mg of sodium fluoride, 200 mg calcium carbonate, and a multiple vitamin supplying 400-800 IU of vitamin D per day, for periods ranging from six months to over five years. Many participants also had blood sugar abnormalities, and were asked to follow a modified hypoglycemia diet as described above. Significant improvement in vertigo was reported within six months, but improvements in hearing required one to two years. Because most participants used both diet and supplements, the importance of fluoride, calcium, and/or vitamin D to the overall results of this trial is unclear.

References

1. Moser M, Ranacher G, Wilmot TJ, Golden GJ. A double-blind clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in Meniere's disease. J Laryngol Otol 1984;98:265-72.

2. Franklin DJ, Pollak A, Fisch U. Meniere's symptoms resulting from bilateral otosclerotic occlusion of the endolymphatic duct: an analysis of a causal relationship between otosclerosis and Meniere's disease. Am J Otol 1990;11:135-40.

3. Liston SL, Paparella MM, Mancini F, Anderson JH. Otosclerosis and endolymphatic hydrops. Laryngoscope 1984;94:1003-7.

4. Freeman J. Otosclerosis and vestibular dysfunction. Laryngoscope 1980;90:1481-7.

5. Sismanis A, Hughes GB, Abedi E. Coexisting otosclerosis and Meniere's disease: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Laryngoscope 1986;96:9-13.

6. Sismanis A, Hughes GB, Abedi E. Coexisting otosclerosis and Meniere's disease: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Laryngoscope 1986;96:9-13.

7. Franklin DJ, Pollak A, Fisch U. Meniere's symptoms resulting from bilateral otosclerotic occlusion of the endolymphatic duct: an analysis of a causal relationship between otosclerosis and Meniere's disease. Am J Otol 1990;11:135-40.

8. Brookler KH, Glenn MB. Meniere's syndrome: an approach to therapy. Ear Nose Throat J 1995;74:534-8, 540, 542.

9. Freeman J. Otosclerosis and vestibular dysfunction. Laryngoscope 1980;90:1481-7.

10. Bretlau P, Hansen HJ, Causse J, Causse JB. Otospongiosis: morphologic and microchemical investigation after NaF-treatment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1981;89:646-50.

11. Causse JR, Causse JB, Uriel J, et al. Sodium fluoride therapy. Am J Otol 1993;14:482-90 [review].

12. Sismanis A, Hughes GB, Abedi E. Coexisting otosclerosis and Meniere's disease: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Laryngoscope 1986;96:9-13.

13. Brookler KH, Glenn MB. Meniere's syndrome: an approach to therapy. Ear Nose Throat J 1995;74:534-8, 540, 542.

Skin Ulcers
Dose: 900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day of hesperidin

A double-blind trial found that a combination of 900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day of hesperidin, two members of the flavonoid family, resulted in significantly greater healing of venous leg ulcers after two months.1, 2 Related flavonoids known as hydroxyethylrutosides have also been investigated for venous ulcer healing. While one controlled study reported significant additional benefit when 2,000 mg per day of hydroxyethylrutosides were added to compression stocking therapy,3 another double-blind trial using 1,000 mg per day found no effect on ulcer healing;4 a second double-blind trial found no effect of 1,000 mg per day hydroxyethylrutosides on the prevention of venous ulcer recurrences.5

References

1. Guilhou JJ, Fevrier F, Debure C, et al. Benefit of a 2-month treatment with a micronized, purified flavinoidic fraction on venous ulcer healing. A randomized, double-blind, controlled versus placebo trial. Int J MicroClinExp 1997;17:21-6.

2. Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology 1997;48:77-85.

3. Stegmann W, Hubner K, Deichmann B, Muller B. Efficacy of O-(s-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Phlebologie 1987;40:149-56 [in French].

4. Mann RJ. A double blind trial of oral O. B-hydroxyethyl rutosides for stasis leg ulcers. Br J Clin Pract 1981;35:79-81.

5. Wright DD, Franks PJ, Blair SD, et al. Oxerutins in the prevention of recurrence in chronic venous ulceration: randomized controlled trial. Br J Surg 1991;78:1269-70.

Skin Ulcers
Dose: 2,000 mg per day

Related flavonoids known as hydroxyethylrutosides have also been investigated for venous ulcer healing. While one controlled study reported significant additional benefit when 2,000 mg per day of hydroxyethylrutosides were added to compression stocking therapy,1 another double-blind trial using 1,000 mg per day found no effect on ulcer healing;2 a second double-blind trial found no effect of 1,000 mg per day hydroxyethylrutosides on the prevention of venous ulcer recurrences.3A double-blind trial found that a combination of 900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day of hesperidin, two members of the flavonoid family, resulted in significantly greater healing of venous leg ulcers after two months.4, 5

References

1. Stegmann W, Hubner K, Deichmann B, Muller B. Efficacy of O-(s-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Phlebologie 1987;40:149-56 [in French].

2. Mann RJ. A double blind trial of oral O. B-hydroxyethyl rutosides for stasis leg ulcers. Br J Clin Pract 1981;35:79-81.

3. Wright DD, Franks PJ, Blair SD, et al. Oxerutins in the prevention of recurrence in chronic venous ulceration: randomized controlled trial. Br J Surg 1991;78:1269-70.

4. Guilhou JJ, Fevrier F, Debure C, et al. Benefit of a 2-month treatment with a micronized, purified flavinoidic fraction on venous ulcer healing. A randomized, double-blind, controlled versus placebo trial. Int J MicroClinExp 1997;17:21-6.

5. Guilhou JJ, Dereure O, Marzin L, et al. Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients. Angiology 1997;48:77-85.

Measles
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Flavonoids are nutrients found in the white, pithy parts of fruits and vegetables. In preliminary laboratory research, certain flavonoids have been found to inhibit the infectivity of measles virus in the test tube.1 Whether flavonoid supplements could be effective in preventing or treating measles is unknown.

References

1. Lin YM, Flavin MT, Schure R, et al. Antiviral activities of bioflavonoids. Planta Med 1999;65:120-5.

Flavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments. Flavonoids are broken down into categories, though the issue of how to divide them is not universally agreed upon. One system breaks flavonoids into isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavans, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones.1 Some of the best-known flavonoids, such as genistein in soy, and quercetin in onions, can be considered subcategories of categories. Although they are all structurally related, their functions are different. Flavonoids also include hesperidin, rutin, citrus flavonoids, and a variety of other supplements.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2017.