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Now® Magnesium Citrate

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Description
NOW® Magnesium Citrate
Nervous System Support
Superior Bioavailablitiy*
With Glycinate & Malate
Dietary Supplement
Quality GMP Assured



Magnesium is a mineral that is critial for energy production and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone mineralization. It is a required cofactor for an estimated 300 enzymes. Among the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes are fatty acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and glucose meabolism. Magnesium status is also important for regulation of calcium balance through its effects on the parathyroid gland. Magnesium Citrate is easily absorbed, and NOW® Megnesium Citrate Softgels are provided in a liquid base with chelated forms for superior bioavailability.*

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Supplement Facts

As a dietary supplement, take 3 softgels daily, preferably with food. Consider taking this product in combination with NOW® Calcium, OsteoBoron™, Vitamin D and Zinc.

Serving Size 3 softgels
Servings Per Container 60
Amount Per Serving % DV
Calories 20.00
Calories from Fat 20.00
Total Fat 2.00 g 0%
Trans Fat 0.00 g
Magnesium (from Magnesium Citrate Magnesium Glycinate and Magnesium Malate) 400.00 mg 100%
** Daily Value (DV) not established

Other Ingredients: rice bran oil, Softgel Capsule (gelatin, glycerin, water), Beeswax, sunflower lecithin

Storage Instructions: Store in a cool, dry place.

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NOW FOODS, 395 S. Glen Ellyn Rd.
Bloomingdale, IL 60108 Made in the U.S.A. www.nowfoods.com

Health Notes

Magnesium

Magnesium
This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Congestive Heart Failure
Dose: 300 mg daily with a doctor's supervision
Supplementing with this essential mineral can prevent a deficiency that can lead to heart arrhythmias.(more)
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Dose: If deficient: 500 mg daily
Magnesium deficiency may be one cause of the symptoms that occur in association with MVP. In one study, people taking magnesium experienced a significant reduction in weakness, chest pain, anxiety, shortness of breath, and palpitations.(more)
Cardiac Arrhythmia
Dose: 384 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium may help reduce the number of arrhythmic episodes.(more)
Hypertension
Dose: 350 to 500 mg daily
Taking magnesium may lower blood pressure, especially in people who are taking potassium-depleting diuretics. (more)
Angina
Dose: 365 mg twice per day
Taking magnesium may reduce the risk of exercise-induced chest pain.(more)
Heart Attack
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Magnesium given intravenously after a heart attack has been shown to decrease death and complications from heart attacks.(more)
High Cholesterol
Dose: Refer to label instructions
In a preliminary study, magnesium supplementation lowered total cholesterol and increased HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. (more)
Stroke
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium appears to reduce high blood pressure, which may in turn reduce stroke risk.(more)
Intermittent Claudication
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium may increase blood flow by helping to dilate blood vessels. One trial found that taking magnesium may increase walking distance in people with intermittent claudication.(more)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium is needed for normal function, supplementing with it can make up for the magnesium deficiency commonly caused by prescription drugs taken by people with COPD.(more)
Raynaud's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Abnormalities of magnesium metabolism have been reported in people with Raynaud's disease. Magnesium deficiency results in blood-vessel spasm, which may be helped with supplementation.(more)
Heart Attack
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with magnesium may reduce heart attack risk.(more)
Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 360 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium may help keep uterine muscles relaxed.(more)
Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: 200 to 400 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium may help reduce the risk of mood swings, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and other symptoms.(more)
Menopause
Dose: 250 to 500 mg per day
In a preliminary trial, supplementing with magnesium significantly decreased the frequency of hot flashes in women experiencing menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment.(more)
Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
Dose: 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks
Some, though not all, research suggests that supplementing with magnesium may improve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.(more)
Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 360 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium may help keep uterine muscles relaxed.(more)
Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: 200 to 400 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium may help reduce the risk of mood swings, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and other symptoms.(more)
Type 2 Diabetes
Dose: 200 to 600 mg daily
People with type 2 diabetes tend to have low magnesium levels, supplementing with the mineral may restore levels and improve insulin production.(more)
Type 1 Diabetes
Dose: 200 to 600 mg daily
People with type 1 diabetes tend to have low magnesium levels, supplementing with the mineral may reduce the risk of deficiency-related problems, such as eye damage and neuropathy.(more)
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium deficiency can reduce insulin sensitivity, and low magnesium levels have been associated with greater insulin resistance in nondiabetic people, leading some doctors to believe that supplementing with magnesium may improve IRS.(more)
Hypoglycemia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Research has shown that supplementing with or magnesium can prevent blood sugar levels from falling excessively in people with hypoglycemia.(more)
Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Low magnesium levels have been found to be a risk factor for retinopathy in white people with diabetes. Supplementing with magnesium may improve blood levels of the mineral.(more)
Migraine Headache
Dose: 360 to 600 mg daily
Compared with healthy people, migraine sufferers have been found to have lower magnesium levels. Supplementing with magnesium may reduce migraine frequency and relieve symptoms.(more)
Fibromyalgia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
A preliminary trial found that a combination of magnesium and malic acid might lessen muscle pain in people with fibromyalgia.(more)
Cluster Headache
Dose: Refer to label instructions
People who suffer from cluster headaches often have low blood levels of magnesium, magnesium injections have been shown to bring relief.(more)
Gestational Hypertension
Dose: 300 mg daily
Taking magnesium may prevent gestational hypertension or reduce its severity.(more)
Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
Dose: 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks
Some, though not all, research suggests that supplementing with magnesium may improve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.(more)
Preeclampsia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in high-risk women in one trial.(more)
Urinary Incontinence
Dose:

150 mg twice daily

In a double blind study, women with urge incontinence reported improvement after supplementing with magnesium. (more)
Kidney Stones and Abdominal Pain
Dose: 1,600 mg daily potassium as citrate and 500 mg daily of magnesium as citrate
Supplementing with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate may reduce the recurrence rate of kidney stones.(more)
Osteoporosis
Dose: Adults: 250 mg up to 750 mg daily; for girls: 150 mg daily
Supplementing with magnesium has been shown to stop bone loss or increased bone mass in people with osteoporosis.(more)
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
Dose: If deficient: 200 mg daily
Some children with ADHD have low magnesium levels. In one trial, children with ADHD and low magnesium status who were given magnesium had a significant decrease in hyperactive behavior.(more)
Autism
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Some researchers have added magnesium to vitamin B6, reporting that taking both nutrients may have better effects than B6 alone. Doctors will often try this combination for at least three months to see whether these nutrients help autistic children.(more)
Menopause
Dose: 250 to 500 mg per day
In a preliminary trial, supplementing with magnesium significantly decreased the frequency of hot flashes in women experiencing menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment.(more)
Asthma
Dose: 300 to 400 mg daily
People with asthma frequently have low magnesium levels. Supplementing with the mineral might help prevent asthma attacks because magnesium can prevent bronchial spasms. (more)
Celiac Disease
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
The malabsorption that occurs in celiac disease can lead to multiple nutritional deficiencies. Supplementing with magnesium may correct a deficiency.(more)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
(more)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Some researchers have reported that magnesium deficiency is common in people with chronic fatigue syndrome. Supplementing can help make up for a deficiency.(more)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dose: 1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day
Potassium-magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in some trials.(more)
Glaucoma
Dose: Refer to label instructions
In one study, supplementing with magnesium improved vision in people with glaucoma, apparently by enhancing blood flow to the eyes.(more)
Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Low magnesium levels have been found to be a risk factor for retinopathy in white people with diabetes. Supplementing with magnesium may improve blood levels of the mineral.(more)
Insomnia
Dose: Refer to label instructions
People with period limb movements during sleep or restless legs syndrome often have sleep problems. In one trial, insomniacs with these conditions slept better after supplementing with magnesium.(more)
Restless Legs Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with magnesium may help relieve insomnia in people with restless leg syndrome.(more)
Athletic Performance
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Magnesium deficiency can reduce exercise performance and contribute to muscle cramps. Studies suggest that taking magnesium might improve performance, although possibly only for those who are deficient or who are not highly trained athletes.(more)
Anxiety
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Many years ago, magnesium was reported to be relaxing for people with mild anxiety. Some doctors recommend soaking in a hot bathtub containing magnesium sulfate crystals (Epsom salts). (more)
Anxiety
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Many years ago, magnesium was reported to be relaxing for people with mild anxiety. Some doctors recommend soaking in a hot bathtub containing magnesium sulfate crystals (Epsom salts). (more)
Tinnitus
Dose: Refer to label instructions
In a preliminary study, supplementation with magnesium resulted in a statistically significant improvement in symptoms in adults with tinnitus.(more)
Congestive Heart Failure
Dose: 300 mg daily with a doctor's supervision

Magnesium deficiency frequently occurs in people with CHF, and such a deficiency may lead to heart arrhythmias. Magnesium supplements have reduced the risk of these arrhythmias.1 People with CHF are often given drugs that deplete both magnesium and potassium; a deficiency of either of these minerals may lead to an arrhythmia.2 Many doctors suggest magnesium supplements of 300 mg per day.

References

1. Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton A, et al. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1156-62.

2. Packer M, Gottlieb SS, Kessler PD. Hormone-electrolyte interactions in the pathogenesis of lethal cardiac arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Med 1986;80 (Suppl 4A):23-9.

Mitral Valve Prolapse
Dose: If deficient: 500 mg daily

Magnesium deficiency has been proposed as one cause of the symptoms that occur in association with MVP.1 In a study of people with severe MVP symptoms, blood levels of magnesium were low in 60% of cases. Those people with low magnesium levels participated in a double-blind trial, in which they received a placebo or magnesium (500 mg per day for one week, then about 335 mg per day for four weeks). People receiving magnesium experienced a significant reduction in symptoms of weakness, chest pain, anxiety, shortness of breath, and palpitations.2

References

1. Galland LD, Baker SM, McLellan RK. Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse. Magnesium 1986;5:165-74.

2. Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, et al. Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:768-72.

Cardiac Arrhythmia
Dose: 384 mg daily

A double-blind trial investigated the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on arrhythmic episodes in people with congestive heart failure. Those people taking 3.2 grams per day of magnesium chloride (equivalent to 384 mg per day of elemental magnesium) had between 23% and 52% fewer occurrences of specific types of arrhythmia during the six-week study, compared with those taking placebo.1 Lower serum concentrations of magnesium were found to be associated with a higher incidence of arrhythmia in a large population study.2 The anti-arrhythmic properties of magnesium appear to be specific. For example, magnesium is clearly able to prevent a drug-induced arrhythmia called torsade de pointes,3 but it does not appear to prevent atrial fibrillation.4 A doctor should supervise any use of magnesium for cardiac arrhythmia.

References

1. Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton A, et al. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1156-62.

2. Tsuji H, Venditti FJ, Evans JC, et al. The associations of levels of serum potassium and magnesium with ventricular premature complexes (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1994;74:232-5.

3. Tzivoni D, Keren A. Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias by magnesium. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:1397-9 [review].

4. Brugada P. Magnesium: an antiarrhythmic drug, but only against very specific arrhythmias. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1116 [review].

Hypertension
Dose: 350 to 500 mg daily Some,1 but not all,2 trials show that magnesium supplements-typically 350-500 mg per day-lower blood pressure. Magnesium appears to be particularly effective in people who are taking potassium-depleting diuretics.3 Potassium-depleting diuretics also deplete magnesium. Therefore, the drop in blood pressure resulting from magnesium supplementation in people taking these drugs may result from overcoming a mild magnesium deficiency.
References

1. Motoyama T, Sano H, Fukuzaki H, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1989;13:227-32.

2. Patki PS, Singh J, Gokhale SV, et al. Efficacy of potassium and magnesium in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. BMJ 1990;301:521-3.

3. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. BMJ 1983;286:1847-9.

Angina
Dose: 365 mg twice per day

Magnesium deficiency may be a contributing factor for spasms that occur in coronary arteries, particularly in variant angina.1, 2 While studies have used injected magnesium to stop such attacks effectively,3, 4 it is unclear whether oral magnesium would be effective in preventing or treating blood vessel spasms. One double-blind study of patients with exercise-induced angina, however, showed that oral magnesium supplementation (365 mg twice a day) for 6 months significantly reduced the incidence of exercise-induced chest pain, compared with a placebo.5

References

1. Turlapaty P, Altura B. Magnesium deficiency produces spasms of coronary arteries: Relationship to etiology of sudden death ischemic heart disease. Science 1980;208:199-200.

2. Goto K, Yasue H, Okumura K, et al. Magnesium deficiency detected by intravenous loading test in variant angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:709-12.

3. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of variant angina. Magnesium 1984;3:46-9.

4. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Prompt termination and/or prevention of cold-pressor-stimulus-induced vasoconstriction of different vascular beds by magnesium sulfate in patients with Prinzmetal's angina. Magnesium 1986;5:144-9.

5. Shechter M, Bairey Merz CN, et al. Effects of oral magnesium therapy on exercise tolerance, exercise-induced chest pain, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:517-21.

Heart Attack
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

Blood levels of magnesium are lower in people who have a history of heart attack.1 Most trials have successfully used intravenous magnesium right after a heart attack occurs to decrease death and complications from heart attacks.2 By far the largest trial did not find magnesium to be effective.3 However, other researchers have argued that delaying the initial infusion of magnesium and administering the magnesium for too short a period may have caused this negative result.4 People with a history of heart attack or who are at risk should consult with their cardiologist about the possible use of immediate intravenous magnesium should they ever suffer another heart attack.

References

1. Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Ghosh S, Niaz MA. Dietary and serum magnesium levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and noncardiac diagnoses. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:139-43.

2. Hampton EM, Whang DD, Whang R. Intravenous magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother 1994;28:212-9 [review].

3. [No authors listed]. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1995;345:669-85.

4. Seelig MS, Elin RJ. Is there a place for magnesium in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction? Am Heart J 1996;132:471-7.

High Cholesterol
Dose: Refer to label instructionsMagnesium is needed by the heart to function properly. Although the mechanism is unclear, magnesium supplements (430 mg per day) lowered cholesterol in a preliminary trial.1 Another preliminary study reported that magnesium deficiency is associated with a low HDL cholesterol level.2 Intravenous magnesium has reduced death following heart attacks in some, but not all, clinical trials.3 Though these outcomes would suggest that people with high cholesterol levels should take magnesium supplements, an isolated double-blind trial reported that people with a history of heart disease assigned to magnesium supplementation experienced an increased number of heart attacks.4 More information is necessary before the scientific community can clearly evaluate the role magnesium should play for people with elevated cholesterol.
References

1. Davis WH, Leary WP, Reyes AJ, Olhaberry JV. Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipoprotein cholesterol: a clinical assay. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:341-6.

2. Nozue T, Kobayashi A, Uemasu F, et al. Magnesium status, serum HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-1 levels. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;20:316-8.

3. Baxter GF, Sumeray MS, Walker JM. Infarct size and magnesium: insights into LIMIT-2 and ISIS-4 from experimental studies. Lancet 1996;348:1424-6.

4. Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.

Stroke
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Researchers have found an association between diets low in magnesium and increased risk of stroke, an effect explained partially, but not completely, by the ability of magnesium to reduce high blood pressure.1 Protection from stroke associated with drinking water high in magnesium has also been reported.2 Intravenous magnesium given immediately after a stroke has been proposed as a treatment for reducing stroke deaths,3 but results so far have been inconclusive.4

References

1. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.

2. Yang CY. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1998;29:411-4.

3. Muir KW. New experimental and clinical data on the efficacy of pharmacological magnesium infusions in cerebral infarcts. Magnes Res 1998;11:43-56.

4. Muir KW, Lees KR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute stroke. Stroke 1995;26:1183-8.

Intermittent Claudication
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Magnesium may increase blood flow by helping to dilate blood vessels. A preliminary trial found that magnesium supplementation may increase walking distance in people with intermittent claudication.1 Many doctors suggest that people with atherosclerosis, including those with intermittent claudication, take approximately 250 to 400 mg of magnesium per day.

In a preliminary trial, supplementing with evening primrose oil (approximately 1,600 mg per day) led to a 10% increase in exercise tolerance in people with intermittent claudication.2

References

1. Neglen P, Overfordt P, Eklof B. Peroral magnesium hydroxide therapy and intermittent claudication. Vasa 1985;14:285-8.

2. Christie SB, Conway N, Pearson HE. Observations on the performance of a standard exercise test by claudicants taking gamma-linolenic acid. J Atheroscler Res 1968;8:83-90.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Many prescription drugs commonly taken by people with COPD have been linked to magnesium deficiency, a potential problem because magnesium is needed for normal lung function.1 One group of researchers reported that 47% of people with COPD had a magnesium deficiency.2 In this study, magnesium deficiency was also linked to increased hospital stays. Thus, it appears that many people with COPD may be magnesium deficient, a problem that might worsen their condition; moreover, the deficiency is not easily diagnosed.

Intravenous magnesium has improved breathing capacity in people experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD.3 In this double-blind study, the need for hospitalization also was reduced in the magnesium group (28% versus 42% with placebo), but this difference was not statistically significant. Intravenous magnesium is known to be a powerful bronchodilator.4 The effect of oral magnesium supplementation in people with COPD has yet to be investigated.

References

1. Rolla G, Bucca C, Bugiani M, et al. Hypomagnesemia in chronic obstructive lung disease: effect of therapy. Magnesium Trace Elem 1990;9:132-6.

2. Fiaccadori E, Del Canale S, Coffrini E, et al. Muscle and serum magnesium in pulmonary intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 1988;16:751-60.

3. Skorodin MS, Tenholder MF, Yetter B, et al. Magnesium sulfate in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:496-500.

4. Okayama H, Aikawa T, Okayama M, et al. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in bronchial asthma. JAMA 1987;257:1076-8.

Raynaud's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Abnormalities of magnesium metabolism have been reported in people with Raynaud's disease.1 Symptoms similar to those seen with Raynaud's disease occur in people with magnesium deficiency,2 probably because a deficiency of this mineral results in spasm of blood vessels.3 Some doctors recommend that people with Raynaud's disease supplement with 200-600 mg of magnesium per day, although no clinical trials support this treatment.

References

1. Leppert J, Aberg H, Levin K, et al. The concentration of magnesium in erythrocytes in female patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon; fluctuation with the time of year. Angiology 1994;45:283-8.

2. Smith WO, Hammarsten JF, Eliel LP. The clinical expression of magnesium deficiency. JAMA 1960;174:77-8.

3. Turlapaty P, Altura BM. Magnesium deficiency produces spasms of coronary arteries; relationship to etiology of sudden death ischemic heart disease. Science 1980;208:198-200.

Heart Attack
Dose: Refer to label instructionsExcept for a link between high levels of magnesium in drinking water and a low risk of heart attacks,1, 2 little evidence suggests that oral magnesium reduces heart attack risk. One trial found that magnesium pills taken for one year actually increased complications for people who had suffered a heart attack.3 While another study reported that 400-800 mg of magnesium per day for two years decreased both deaths and complications due to heart attacks, results are difficult to interpret because those taking oral magnesium had previously received intravenous magnesium as well.4 While increasing dietary magnesium has reduced the risk of heart attacks,5 foods high in magnesium may contain other protective factors that might be responsible for this positive effect. Therefore, evidence supporting supplemental oral magnesium to reduce the risk of heart attacks remains weak.
References

1. Marx A, Neutra RR. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. Epidemiol Rev 1997;19:258-72.

2. Rubenowitz E, Molin I, Axelsson G, Rylander R. Magnesium in drinking water in relation to morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 2000;11:416-21.

3. Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.

4. Singh RB, Singh NK, Niaz MA, Sharma JP. Effect of treatment with magnesium and potassium on mortality and reinfarction of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;34:219-25.

5. Singh RB. Effect of dietary magnesium supplementation in the prevention of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Magnesium Trace Elem 1990;9:143-51.

Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 360 mg daily

Magnesium plays a role in controlling muscle tone and could be important in preventing menstrual cramps.1, 2 Magnesium supplements have been reported in preliminary and double-blind European research to reduce symptoms of dysmenorrhea.3, 4, 5 In one of these double-blind trials, women took 360 mg per day of magnesium for three days beginning on the day before menses began.6

References

1. Durlach J. Neuromuscular and phlebothrombotic clinical aspects of primary magnesium deficiency. Z Ernahrungswiss 1975;14:75-83 [in French].

2. Martignoni E, Nappi G, Facchinetti F, Gennazzani AR. Magnesium in gynecological disorders. Gyn Endocrinol 1988;2(Suppl 2):26 [abstract].

3. Benassi L, Barletta FP, Baroncini L, et al. Effectiveness of magnesium pidolate in the prophylactic treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1992;19:176-9.

4. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

5. Seifert B, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium-a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea. Zentralbl Gynakol 1989;111:755-60 [in German].

6. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: 200 to 400 mg daily

Women with PMS have been reported to be at increased risk of magnesium deficiency.1, 2 Supplementing with magnesium may help reduce symptoms.3, 4 In one double-blind trial using only 200 mg per day for two months, a significant reduction was reported for several symptoms related to PMS (fluid retention, weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating).5 Magnesium has also been reported to be effective in reducing the symptoms of menstrual migraine headaches.6 While the ideal amount of magnesium has yet to be determined, some doctors recommend 400 mg per day.7 Effects of magnesium may begin to appear after two to three months.

References

1. Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2364-6.

2. Sherwood RA, Rocks BF, Stewart A, Saxton RS. Magnesium and the premenstrual syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1986;23:667-70.

3. Nicholas A. Traitement du syndrome pre-menstruel et de la dysmenorrhee par l'ion magnesium. in First International Symposium on Magnesium Deficit in Human Pathology, ed. J Durlach. Paris: Springer-Verlag, 1973, 261-3.

4. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

5. Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health 1998;7:1157-65.

6. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

7. Werbach MR. Premenstrual syndrome: magnesium. Int J Alternative Complementary Med 1994;Feb:29 [review].

Menopause
Dose: 250 to 500 mg per dayIn a preliminary trial, supplementation with magnesium (250 to 500 mg per day for 4 weeks) significantly decreased the frequency of hot flashes by 47% in women who were experiencing menopausal symptoms after treatment for breast cancer.1
References

1. REF:Park H, Parker GL, Boardman CH, et al. A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:859-63.

Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
Dose: 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeksA double-blind trial found that supplementing with 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks improved pregnancy-induced leg cramps.1 However, another double-blind study found that 360 mg of magnesium per day for two weeks did not relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.2
References

1. Supakatisant C, Phupong V. Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy-induced leg cramps: a randomised controlled trial. <em>Matern Child Nutr</em> 2012 Aug 22 [Epub ahead of print].

2. Nygaard IH, Valbo A, Pethick SV, Bohmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? <em>Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol</em> 2008;141:23-6.

Dysmenorrhea
Dose: 360 mg daily

Magnesium plays a role in controlling muscle tone and could be important in preventing menstrual cramps.1, 2 Magnesium supplements have been reported in preliminary and double-blind European research to reduce symptoms of dysmenorrhea.3, 4, 5 In one of these double-blind trials, women took 360 mg per day of magnesium for three days beginning on the day before menses began.6

References

1. Durlach J. Neuromuscular and phlebothrombotic clinical aspects of primary magnesium deficiency. Z Ernahrungswiss 1975;14:75-83 [in French].

2. Martignoni E, Nappi G, Facchinetti F, Gennazzani AR. Magnesium in gynecological disorders. Gyn Endocrinol 1988;2(Suppl 2):26 [abstract].

3. Benassi L, Barletta FP, Baroncini L, et al. Effectiveness of magnesium pidolate in the prophylactic treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1992;19:176-9.

4. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

5. Seifert B, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium-a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea. Zentralbl Gynakol 1989;111:755-60 [in German].

6. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: 200 to 400 mg daily

Women with PMS have been reported to be at increased risk of magnesium deficiency.1, 2 Supplementing with magnesium may help reduce symptoms.3, 4 In one double-blind trial using only 200 mg per day for two months, a significant reduction was reported for several symptoms related to PMS (fluid retention, weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating).5 Magnesium has also been reported to be effective in reducing the symptoms of menstrual migraine headaches.6 While the ideal amount of magnesium has yet to be determined, some doctors recommend 400 mg per day.7 Effects of magnesium may begin to appear after two to three months.

References

1. Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2364-6.

2. Sherwood RA, Rocks BF, Stewart A, Saxton RS. Magnesium and the premenstrual syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1986;23:667-70.

3. Nicholas A. Traitement du syndrome pre-menstruel et de la dysmenorrhee par l'ion magnesium. in First International Symposium on Magnesium Deficit in Human Pathology, ed. J Durlach. Paris: Springer-Verlag, 1973, 261-3.

4. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

5. Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health 1998;7:1157-65.

6. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

7. Werbach MR. Premenstrual syndrome: magnesium. Int J Alternative Complementary Med 1994;Feb:29 [review].

Type 2 Diabetes
Dose: 200 to 600 mg daily

People with type 2 diabetes tend to have low magnesium levels.1 Double-blind research indicates that supplementing with magnesium overcomes this problem.2 Magnesium supplementation has improved insulin production in elderly people with type 2 diabetes.3 However, one double-blind trial found no effect from 500 mg magnesium per day in people with type 2 diabetes, although twice that amount led to some improvement.4 Elders without diabetes can also produce more insulin as a result of magnesium supplements, according to some,5 but not all, trials.6 However, in people with type 2 diabetes who nonetheless require insulin, Dutch researchers have reported no improvement in blood sugar levels from magnesium supplementation.7 The American Diabetes Association acknowledges strong associations between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance but has not said magnesium deficiency is a risk factor8 Many doctors, however, recommend that people with diabetes and normal kidney function supplement with 200 to 600 mg of magnesium per day.

Diabetes-induced damage to the eyes is more likely to occur in magnesium-deficient people with type 1 diabetes.9 In magnesium-deficient pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, the lack of magnesium may even account for the high rate of spontaneous abortion and birth defects associated with type 1 diabetes.10 The American Diabetes Association admits "strong associations...between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance" but will not say magnesium deficiency is a risk factor.11 Many doctors, however, recommend that people with diabetes and normal kidney function supplement with 200-600 mg of magnesium per day.

References

1. Paolisso G, Scheen A, D'Onofrio FD, Lefebvre P. Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 1990;33:511-4 [review].

2. Eibl NL, Schnack CJ, Kopp H-P, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1995;18:188.

3. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Pizza G, et al. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1989;12:265-9.

4. Lima M, Cruz T, Carreiro Pousada J, et al: The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:682-6.

5. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1161-7.

6. Smellie WS, O'Reilly DS, Martin BJ, Santamaria J. Magnesium replacement and glucose tolerance in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:594-6 [letter].

7. de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJM, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15:503-7.

8. American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7.

9. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-7.

10. Mimouni F, Miodovnik M, Tsang RC, et al. Decreased maternal serum magnesium concentration and adverse fetal outcome in insulin-dependent diabetic women. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:85-9.

11. American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7.

Type 1 Diabetes
Dose: 200 to 600 mg dailyPeople with type 1 diabetes tend to have low magnesium levels, and magnesium given orally or by injection partially overcomes the reduction in magnesium levels.1 In one preliminary trial, insulin requirements were lower in people with type 1 diabetes who were given magnesium.2 Diabetes-induced damage to the eyes is more likely to occur in magnesium-deficient people with type 1 diabetes.3 In magnesium-deficient pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, the lack of magnesium may even account for the high rate of spontaneous abortion and birth defects associated with type 1 diabetes.4 A double-blind trial found that giving 300 mg per day of magnesium to magnesium-deficient type 1 diabetics for five years slowed the development of diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy). The American Diabetes Association acknowledges strong associations between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance but has not said magnesium deficiency is a risk factor.5 Many doctors, however, recommend that adults with diabetes and normal kidney function supplement with 200 to 600 mg of magnesium per day (those amounts would be lower for children).
References

1. De Leeuw I, Engelen W, Aerts P, Schrans S. Effect of intensive magnesium supplementation on the in vitro oxidizability of LDL and VLDL in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients. Magnes Res 1998;11:179-82.

2. Sjorgren A, Floren CH, Nilsson A. Oral administration of magnesium hydroxide to subjects with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnesium1988;121:16-20.

3. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-7.

4. Mimouni F, Miodovnik M, Tsang RC, et al. Decreased maternal serum magnesium concentration and adverse fetal outcome in insulin-dependent diabetic women. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:85-9.

5. American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7.

Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Magnesium deficiency can reduce insulin sensitivity,1 and low dietary intake2 and low blood levels3 of magnesium have been associated with greater insulin resistance in nondiabetic people. However, no studies of magnesium supplementation in people with IRS have been done.

References

1. Nadler JL, Buchanan T, Natarajan R, et al. Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis. Hypertension 1993;21:1024-9.

2. Humphries S, Kushner H, Falkner B. Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic Black Americans. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:747-56.

3. Rosolova H, Mayer O Jr, Reaven G. Effect of variations in plasma magnesium concentration on resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3783-5.

Hypoglycemia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Research has shown that supplementing with chromium (200 mcg per day)1 or magnesium (340 mg per day)2 can prevent blood sugar levels from falling excessively in people with hypoglycemia. Niacinamide (vitamin B3) has also been found to be helpful for hypoglycemic people.3 Other nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin B6, may help control blood sugar levels in diabetics.4 Since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, these nutrients might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well, although the amounts needed for that purpose are not known.

References

1. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

2. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131-4.

3. Shansky A. Vitamin B3 in the alleviation of hypoglycemia. Drug Cosm Ind 1981;129(4):68-69,104-5.

4. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional regulation of blood glucose. J Advancement Med 1991;4:57-71.

Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Low blood levels of magnesium have been found to be a risk factor for retinopathy in white people with diabetes,1, 2 but not in black people with diabetes.3 So far, no studies have determined whether supplementing with magnesium would help prevent the development of retinopathy.

References

1. Jialal I, Joubert SM. The biochemical profile in Indian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young with retinopathy. Diabetes Metabol 1985;11:262-5.

2. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-8.

3. Erasmus RT, Olukoga AO, Alanamu RA, et al. Plasma magnesium and retinopathy in black African diabetics. Trop Geogr Med 1989;41:234-7.

Migraine Headache
Dose: 360 to 600 mg daily

Compared with healthy people, people with migraines have been found to have lower blood and brain levels of magnesium.1, 2, 3, 4 Preliminary research in a group of women (mostly premenopausal) showed that supplementing with magnesium (usually 200 mg per day) reduced the frequency of migraines in 80% of those treated.5 In a double-blind trial of 81 people with migraines, 600 mg of magnesium per day was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing the frequency of migraines.6 Another double-blind trial found that taking 360 mg of magnesium per day decreased the number of days on which premenstrual migraines occurred.7 One double-blind trial found no benefit from 486 mg of magnesium per day for three months. However, that study defined improvement according to extremely strict criteria, and even some known anti-migraine drugs have failed to show benefit when tested using those criteria.8 Intravenous magnesium has been reported to produce marked and sometimes complete symptom relief during acute migraines, usually within 15 minutes or less.9

References

1. Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Coata G, et al. Serum and salivary magnesium levels in migraine. Results in a group of juvenile patients. Headache 1992;32:132-5.

2. Baker B. New research approach helps clarify magnesium/migraine link. Family Pract News 1993;Aug 15:16.

3. Barbiroli B, Lodi R, Cortelli P, et al. Low brain free magnesium in migraine and cluster headache: an interictal study by in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy on 86 patients. Cephalalgia 1997;17:254.

4. Mazzotta G, Sarchielli P, Alberti A, Gallai V. Intracellular Mg++ concentration and electromyographical ischemic test in juvenile headache. Cephalalgia 1999;19:802-9.

5. Weaver K. Magnesium and migraine. Headache 1990;30:168 [letter].

6. Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:257-63.

7. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

8. Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine-a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:436-40.

9. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulphate relieves migraine attacks in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels: a pilot study. Clin Sci 1995;89:633-6.

Fibromyalgia
Dose: Refer to label instructionsIn a preliminary trial, supplementing with 300 mg per day of magnesium (as magnesium citrate) improved symptoms in women with fibromyalgia.1Another preliminary trial found that a combination of magnesium and malic acid might lessen muscle pain in people with fibromyalgia.2 The amounts used in this trial were 300-600 mg of elemental magnesium and 1,200-2,400 mg of malic acid per day, taken for eight weeks. A double-blind trial by the same research group using 300 mg magnesium and 1,200 mg malic acid per day found no reduction in symptoms, however.3 Though these researchers claimed that magnesium and malic acid appeared to have some effect at higher levels (up to 600 mg magnesium and 2,400 mg malic acid per day), the positive effects were not demonstrated under blinded study conditions. Therefore, the evidence supporting the use of these supplements for people with fibromyalgia remains inconclusive.
References

1. Bagis S, Karabiber M, As I, et al. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia? Rheumatol Int 2013;33:167?72.))

2. Abraham G, Flechas J. Management of fibromyalgia: Rationale for the use of magnesium and malic acid. J Nutr Med 1992;3:49-59.

3. Russell IJ, Michalek J, Flechas J, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with SuperMalic: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol 1995;22(5):953-7.

Cluster Headache
Dose: Refer to label instructions

People who suffer from cluster headaches often have low blood levels of magnesium, and preliminary trials1, 2 show that intravenous magnesium injections may relieve a cluster headache episode. However, no trials have investigated the effects of oral magnesium supplementation on cluster headaches.

References

1. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels. Headache 1995;35:597-600.

2. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate rapidly alleviates headaches of various types. Headache 1996;36:154-60.

Gestational Hypertension
Dose: 300 mg daily

Magnesium deficiency has also been implicated as a possible cause of GH.1, 2, 3 Dietary intake of magnesium is below recommended levels for many women during pregnancy.4, 5 Magnesium supplementation has been reported to reduce the incidence of GH in preliminary6 and many double-blind trials.7, 8, 9 In addition to preventing GH, magnesium supplementation has also been reported to reduce the severity of established GH in one study.10 Amounts used in studies on GH range from 165 to 365 mg of supplemental magnesium per day.

References

1. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.

2. Conradt A. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of gestosis with special reference to magnesium deficiency. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol 1984;188:49-58 [review] [in German].

3. Leela R, Yasodhara P, Ramaraju MBBS, Ramaraju LA. Calcium and magnesium in pregnancy. Nutr Res 1991;11:1231-6.

4. Makrides M, Crowther CA. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000937 [review].

5. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.

6. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.

7. Li S, Tian H. Oral low-dose magnesium gluconate preventing pregnancy induced hypertension. Chung Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1997;32:613-5 [in Chinese].

8. D'Almeida A, Caretr JP, Anatol A, Prost C. Effects of a combination of evening primrose oil (gamma linolenic acid) and fish oil (eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid) versus magnesium, and versus placebo in preventing pre-eclampsia. Women Health 1992;19:117-31.

9. Bullarbo M, Odman N, Nestler A, et al. Magnesium supplementation to prevent high blood pressure in pregnancy: a randomised placebo control trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013;288:1269?74.

10. Rudnicki M, Frolich A, Rasmussen WF, McNair P. The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;80:445-50.

Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
Dose: 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeksA double-blind trial found that supplementing with 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks improved pregnancy-induced leg cramps.1 However, another double-blind study found that 360 mg of magnesium per day for two weeks did not relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.2
References

1. Supakatisant C, Phupong V. Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy-induced leg cramps: a randomised controlled trial. <em>Matern Child Nutr</em> 2012 Aug 22 [Epub ahead of print].

2. Nygaard IH, Valbo A, Pethick SV, Bohmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? <em>Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol</em> 2008;141:23-6.

Preeclampsia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Magnesium deficiency has been implicated as a possible cause of preeclampsia.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Magnesium supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in high-risk women in one trial,6 but not in another double-blind trial.7

References

1. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.

2. Spatling L, Spatling G. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy: a double-blind study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;950:120-5.

3. Sibai BM, Villar MA, Bray E. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:115-9.

4. Standley CA, Whitty JE, Mason BA, Cotton DB. Serum ionized magnesium levels in normal and preeclamptic gestation. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:24-7.

5. Handwerker SM, Altura BT, Altura BM. Ionized serum magnesium and potassium levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia. J Reprod Med 1995;40:201-8.

6. Conradt A, Weidinger H, Algayer G. Magnesium deficiency, a possible cause of pre-eclampsia: reduction of frequency of premature rupture of membranes and premature or small-for-date deliveries after magnesium supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 1985;4:321.

7. Spatling L, Spatling G. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy: a double-blind study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;950:120-5.

Urinary Incontinence
Dose:

150 mg twice daily

In a double blind study, women with urge incontinence took approximately 150 mg of magnesum twice daily for one month, and reported improvement, including fewer episodes of urge incontinence, less frequent urination, and fewer awakenings at night to urinate.1 This confirmed an earlier double-blind study showing that a similar amount of magnesium reduced symptoms of urge incontinence.2
References

1. Boschert S. Milk of magnesia may help ease urinary urge incontinence. Fam Pract News 2003;33:46.

2. Gordon D, Groutz A, Ascher-Landsberg J, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of magnesium hydroxide for treatment of sensory urgency and detrusor instability: preliminary results. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:667-9.

Kidney Stones and Abdominal Pain
Dose: 1,600 mg daily potassium as citrate and 500 mg daily of magnesium as citrateSome citrate research conducted with people who have a history of kidney stones involves supplementation with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate. In one double-blind trial, the recurrence rate of kidney stones dropped from 64% to 13% for those receiving high amounts of both supplements.1 In that trial, people were instructed to take six pills per day-enough potassium citrate to provide 1,600 mg of potassium and enough magnesium citrate to provide 500 mg of magnesium. Both placebo and citrate groups were also advised to restrict salt, sugar, animal protein, and foods rich in oxalate. Other trials have also shown that potassium and magnesium citrate supplementation reduces kidney stone recurrences.2
References

1. Ettinger B, Pak CY, Citron JT, et al. Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1997;158:2069-73.

2. Pak CY. Medical prevention of renal stone disease. Nephron 1999;81(Suppl 1):60-5 [review].

Osteoporosis
Dose: Adults: 250 mg up to 750 mg daily; for girls: 150 mg daily

In a preliminary study, people with osteoporosis were reported to be at high risk for magnesium malabsorption.1 Both bone2 and blood3 levels of magnesium have been reported to be low in people with osteoporosis. Supplemental magnesium has reduced markers of bone loss in men.4 Supplementing with 250 mg up to 750 mg per day of magnesium arrested bone loss or increased bone mass in 87% of people with osteoporosis in a two-year, preliminary trial.5 Supplementing with magnesium (150 mg per day for one year) also increased bone mass in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls in a double-blind study.6 Some doctors recommend that people with osteoporosis supplement with 350 mg of magnesium per day.

One trial studying postmenopausal women combined hormone replacement therapy with magnesium (600 mg per day), calcium (500 mg per day), vitamin C, B vitamins, vitamin D, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, and other nutrients for an eight- to nine-month period.7 In addition, participants were told to avoid processed foods, limit protein intake, emphasize vegetable over animal protein, and limit consumption of salt, sugar, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and tobacco. Bone density increased a remarkable 11%, compared to only 0.7% in women receiving hormone replacement alone.

References

1. Cohen L, Laor A, Kitzes R. Magnesium malabsorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Magnesium 1983;2:139-43.

2. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Infrared spectroscopy and magnesium content of bone mineral in osteoporotic women. Isr J Med Sci 1981;17:1123-5.

3. Geinster JY, Strauss L, Deroisy R, et al. Preliminary report of decreased serum magnesium in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Magnesium 1989;8:106-9.

4. Dimai H-P, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2742-8.

5. Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Res 1993;6:155-63.

6. Carpenter TO, DeLucia MC, Zhang JH, et al. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:4866-72.

7. Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. J Reprod Med 1990;35:503-7.

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
Dose: If deficient: 200 mg daily

Some children with ADHD have lowered levels of magnesium. In a preliminary, controlled trial, children with ADHD and low magnesium status were given 200 mg of magnesium per day for six months.1 Compared with 25 other magnesium-deficient ADHD children, those given magnesium supplementation had a significant decrease in hyperactive behavior.

References

1. Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res 1997;10:149-56.

Autism
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Some researchers have added magnesium to vitamin B6, reporting that taking both nutrients may have better effects than taking B6 alone.1 The amount of magnesium-10 to 15 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight-is high enough to cause diarrhea in some people and should be administered by a doctor. Doctors will often try vitamin B6 or the combination of B6 and magnesium for at least three months to see whether these nutrients help autistic children. In a preliminary trial, one group of researchers found that relatively small daily amounts of magnesium (6 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) and vitamin B6 (0.6 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight) improved symptoms by about 50% in children with autism or a related condition (pervasive developmental disorder).2

References

1. Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Lelord G. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biol Psychiatr 1985;20:467-78.

2. Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, et al. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. II. Pervasive developmental disorder-autism. Magnes Res 2006;19:53-62.

Menopause
Dose: 250 to 500 mg per dayIn a preliminary trial, supplementation with magnesium (250 to 500 mg per day for 4 weeks) significantly decreased the frequency of hot flashes by 47% in women who were experiencing menopausal symptoms after treatment for breast cancer.1
References

1. REF:Park H, Parker GL, Boardman CH, et al. A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:859-63.

Asthma
Dose: 300 to 400 mg daily

Magnesium levels are frequently low in asthmatics.1 Current evidence suggests that high dietary magnesium intake may be associated with better lung function and reduced bronchial reactivity. Intravenous injection of magnesium has been reported in most,2, 3, 4, 5 but not all,6 double-blind trials to rapidly halt acute asthma attacks. Magnesium supplements might help prevent asthma attacks because magnesium can prevent spasms of the bronchial passages. In a preliminary trial, 18 adults with asthma took 300 mg of magnesium per day for 30 days and experienced decreased bronchial reactivity.7 However, a double-blind trial investigated the effects of 400 mg per day for three weeks and found a significant improvement in symptoms, but not in objective measures of airflow or airway reactivity.8 The amount of magnesium used in these trials was 300 to 400 mg per day. Children usually take proportionately less based on their body weight, but one study of asthmatic children between the ages of 17 and 19 used 300 mg of magnesium per day.9

References

1. Haury VG. Blood serum magnesium in bronchial asthma and its treatment by the administration of magnesium sulfate. J Lab Clin Med 1940;26:340-4.

2. Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, McNamara RM, Greenspon L. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. JAMA 1989;262:1210-3.

3. Brunner EH, Delabroise AM, Haddad ZH. Effect of parenteral magnesium on pulmonary function, plasma cAMP, and histamine in bronchial asthma. J Asthma 1985;22:3-11.

4. Rolla G, Bucca C, Caria E, et al. Acute effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate on airway obstruction of asthmatic patients. Ann Allergy 1988;61:388-91.

5. Hill JM, Britton J. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulphate on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in asthmatic subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996;42:629-31.

6. Bernstein WK, Khastgir T, Khastgir A, et al. Lack of effectiveness of magnesium in chronic stable asthma. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in normal subjects and in patients with chronic stable asthma. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:271-6.

7. Rylander R, Dahlberg C, Rubenowitz E. Magnesium supplementation decreases airway responsiveness among hyperreactive subjects. Magnesium-Bulletin 1997;19:4-6.

8. Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, Britton J. Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma. Eur Respir J 1997;10:2225-9.

9. Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MAGO, Gontijo LSC, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:54-60.

Celiac Disease
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

The malabsorption that occurs in celiac disease can lead to multiple nutritional deficiencies. The most common nutritional problems in people with celiac disease include deficiencies of essential fatty acids, iron, vitamin D, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid.1Zinc malabsorption also occurs frequently in celiac disease2 and may result in zinc deficiency, even in people who are otherwise in remission.3 People with newly diagnosed celiac disease should be assessed for nutritional deficiencies by a doctor. Celiac patients who have not yet completely recovered should supplement with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral. Some patients may require even higher amounts of some of these vitamins and minerals-an issue that should be discussed with their healthcare practitioner. Evidence of a nutrient deficiency in a celiac patient is a clear indication for supplementation with that nutrient.

After commencement of a gluten-free diet, overall nutritional status gradually improves. However, deficiencies of some nutrients may persist, even in people who are strictly avoiding gluten. For example, magnesium deficiency was found in 8 of 23 adults with celiac disease who had been following a gluten-free diet and were symptom-free. When these adults were supplemented with magnesium for two years, their bone mineral density increased significantly.4

References

1. Connon JJ. Celiac disease. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994, 1062.

2. Crofton RW, Glover SC, Ewen SWB, et al. Zinc absorption in celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis: a test of small intestinal function. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:706-12.

3. Solomons NW, Rosenberg IH, Sandstead HH. Zinc nutrition in celiac sprue. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:371-5.

4. Rude RK, Olerich M. Magnesium deficiency: possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:453-61.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) helps make ATP, the energy source the body runs on. In a double-blind trial, people with CFS received 10 mg of NADH or a placebo each day for four weeks.1 Of those receiving NADH, 31% reported improvements in fatigue, decreases in other symptoms, and improved overall quality of life, compared with only 8% of those in the placebo group. Further double-blind research is needed to confirm these findings.

Magnesium levels have been reported to be low in CFS sufferers. In a double-blind trial, injections with magnesium improved symptoms for most people.2 Oral magnesium supplementation has improved symptoms in those people with CFS who previously had low magnesium levels, according to a preliminary report, although magnesium injections were sometimes necessary.3 These researchers report that magnesium deficiency appears to be very common in people with CFS. Nonetheless, several other researchers report no evidence of magnesium deficiency in people with CFS.4, 5, 6 The reason for this discrepancy remains unclear. If people with CFS do consider magnesium supplementation, they should have their magnesium status checked by a doctor before undertaking supplementation. It appears that only people with magnesium deficiency benefit from this therapy.

References

1. Forsyth LM, Preuss HG, MacDowell AL, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:185-91.

2. Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;337:757-60.

3. Howard JM, Davies S, Hunnisett A. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:426.

4. Clague JE, Edwards RH, Jackson MJ. Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:124-5.

5. Gantz NM. Magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;338:66 [letter].

6. Hinds G, Bell NP, McMaster D, McCluskey DR. Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1994;31(Pt. 5):459-61.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dose: 1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day

The combination of potassium aspartate and magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in double-blind trials.1, 2, 3, 4 However, these trials were performed before the criteria for diagnosing CFS was established, so whether these people were suffering from CFS is unclear. Usually 1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day, and results have been reported within one to two weeks.

References

1. Shaw DL, Chesney MA, Tullis IF, Agersborg HPK. Management of fatigue: a physiologic approach. Am J Med Sci 1962;243:758-69.

2. Crescente FJ. Treatment of fatigue in a surgical practice. J Abdom Surg 1962;4:73.

3. Hicks J. Treatment of fatigue in general practice: a double-blind study. Clin Med 1964;Jan:85-90.

4. Formica PE. The housewife syndrome: treatment with the potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid. Curr Ther Res 1962;Mar:98-106.

Glaucoma
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Magnesium can dilate blood vessels. One study looked at whether magnesium might improve vision in people with glaucoma by enhancing blood flow to the eyes. In that trial, participants were given 245 mg of magnesium per day. Improvement in vision was noted after four weeks, but the change did not reach statistical significance.1

References

1. Gaspar AZ, Gasser P, Flammer J. The influence of magnesium on visual field and peripheral vasospasm in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 1995;209:11-3.

Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Low blood levels of magnesium have been found to be a risk factor for retinopathy in white people with diabetes,1, 2 but not in black people with diabetes.3 So far, no studies have determined whether supplementing with magnesium would help prevent the development of retinopathy.

References

1. Jialal I, Joubert SM. The biochemical profile in Indian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young with retinopathy. Diabetes Metabol 1985;11:262-5.

2. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-8.

3. Erasmus RT, Olukoga AO, Alanamu RA, et al. Plasma magnesium and retinopathy in black African diabetics. Trop Geogr Med 1989;41:234-7.

Insomnia
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Some people have difficulty sleeping because of a problem known as period limb movements during sleep (PLMS) or another condition called restless legs syndrome (RLS). In a preliminary trial, people with PLMS or RLS who suffered from insomnia had a significant improvement in sleep efficiency after supplementing with magnesium (about 300 mg each evening for four to six weeks).1

References

1. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998;21:501-5.

Restless Legs Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions

In a preliminary trial, people with period limb movements during sleep (PLMS) or RLS who suffered from insomnia had a significant improvement in sleep efficiency after supplementing with magnesium (about 300 mg each evening for four to six weeks).1

References

1. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998;21:501-5.

Athletic Performance
Dose: Refer to label instructionsMagnesium deficiency can reduce exercise performance and contribute to muscle cramps, but sub-optimal intake does not appear to be a problem among most groups of athletes.1, 2 Controlled trials suggest that magnesium supplementation might improve some aspects of physiology important to sports performance in some athletes,3, 4 but controlled and double-blind trials focusing on performance benefits of 212 to 500 mg per day of magnesium have been inconsistent.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 It is possible that magnesium supplementation benefits only those who are deficient or who are not highly trained athletes. 11, 12
References

1. McDonald R, Keen CL. Iron, zinc and magnesium nutrition and athletic performance. Sports Med 1988;5:171-84 [review].

2. Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:585S-93S [review].

3. Golf SW, Bohmer D, Nowacki PE. Is magnesium a limiting factor in competitive exercise? A summary of relevant scientific data. In: Golf S, Dralle D, Vecchiet L, eds. Magnesium 1993. London: John Libbey & Company, 1993:209-20.

4. Ripari P, Pieralisi G, Giamberardino MA, Vecchiet L. Effects of magnesium picolinate on some cardiorespiratory submaximal effort parameters. Magnes Res 1989;2:70-4.

5. Weller E, Bachert P, Meinck HM, et al. Lack of effect of oral Mg-supplementation on Mg in serum, blood cells, and calf muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1584-91.

6. Brilla LR, Haley TF. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:326-9.

7. Golf SW, Bender S, Gruttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1998;12(Suppl 2):197-202.

8. Manore M, Merkel J, Helleksen JM, et al. Longitudinal changes in magnesium status in untrained males: effect of two different 12-week exercise training programs and magnesium supplementation. In: Kies CV, Driskell JA, eds. Sports nutrition: minerals and electrolytes. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1995:179-87.

9. Brilla LR, Gunter KB. Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion. Med Exer Nutr Health 1995;4:230-3.

10. Finstad EW, Newhouse IJ, Lukaski HC, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:493-8.

11. Finstad EW, Newhouse IJ, Lukaski HC, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:493-8.

12. Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:585S-93S [review].

Anxiety
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Many years ago, magnesium was reported to be relaxing for people with mild anxiety.1 Typically, 200 to 300 mg of magnesium are taken two to three times per day. Some doctors recommend soaking in a hot tub containing 1-2 cups of magnesium sulfate crystals (Epsom salts) for 15 to 20 minutes, though support for this approach remains anecdotal.

References

1. Weston PG et al. Magnesium sulfate as a sedative. Am J Med Sci 1923;165:431-3.

Anxiety
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Many years ago, magnesium was reported to be relaxing for people with mild anxiety.1 Typically, 200 to 300 mg of magnesium are taken two to three times per day. Some doctors recommend soaking in a hot tub containing 1-2 cups of magnesium sulfate crystals (Epsom salts) for 15 to 20 minutes, though support for this approach remains anecdotal.

References

1. Weston PG et al. Magnesium sulfate as a sedative. Am J Med Sci 1923;165:431-3.

Tinnitus
Dose: Refer to label instructionsIn a preliminary study, supplementation with magnesium (532 mg per day for 3 months) resulted in a statistically significant improvement in symptoms in adults with tinnitus.1 Double-blind trials are needed to confirm the results of this study.
References

1. Cevette MJ, Barrs DM, Patel A, et al. Phase 2 study examining magnesium-dependent tinnitus. Int Tinnitus J 2011;16:168-73.

Magnesium is an essential mineral to the human body. It is needed for bone, protein, and fatty acid formation, making new cells, activating B vitamins, relaxing muscles, clotting blood, and forming adenosine triphosphate (ATP; the energy the body runs on). The secretion and action of insulin also require magnesium.

Copyright 2014 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com

The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.

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    My doctor instructed me to start taking a Magnesium Citrate supplement for migraine relief. Within two weeks I felt a difference, and still no migraine yet! I also feel better able to focus and concentrate, best I have felt in a long time.

     
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    This is great, easy to take and helpful. Only con is how big this soft gel is - I've never taken one so large.

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