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Description
Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream
A rich blend of Vitamins E, A & D makes this moisturizing cream an excellent moisturizer for
dry, chapped skin. Use Vitamin E, A & D Moisturizing Cream as often as desired to help
promote and maintain smooth, youthful looking skin.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Supplement Facts

Smooth on face and throat using upward strokes. Apply daily as an excellent makeup
base and nightly for optimum moisturization.

Other Ingredients: Water, Cetyl Alcohol, Stearyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Myristate, Petrolatum, Propylene Glycol, Glycerol Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, Dimethicone, Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax, Diazolidinyl Urea, Hydrogenated Polydecene, Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, Carbomer, Methylparaben, Triethanolamine, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Propylparaben, Fragrance, Tocopheryl Acetate, Ergocalciferol

No Animal Testing, Expeller-Pressed and Hexane-Free.

Distributed by:
General Nutrition Corp., Pittsburgh PA 15222
Visit us at www.gnc.com
For more information: 1-888-462-2548
Made in USA

Health Notes

Vitamin A

Vitamin A
This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
  • Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
  • For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary "Star-Rating" system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Infection
Dose: See a doctor for evaluation of possible deficiency
Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.(more)
Immune Function
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.(more)
Pre- and Post-Surgery Health
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Topical vitamin A may help speed wound healing and reduce scarring in patients taking corticosteroids, which typically slow wound healing.(more)
HIV and AIDS Support
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Vitamin A deficiency is common in people with HIV infection, and low levels of the vitamin are associated with greater disease severity. Ask your doctor if vitamin A is right for you.(more)
Childhood Diseases
Dose: High doses of vitamin A may be used to treat measles or chicken pox, but only under a doctor's supervision
Vitamin A plays a critical role in proper immune function, it has been used successfully to prevent and treat measles and to treat chicken pox.(more)
Measles
Dose: 200,000 IU daily for two days under medical supervision
In developing countries where vitamin A deficiency is common, preventive supplementation with vitamin A reduced the risk of death in children with measles.(more)
Peptic Ulcer
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 150,000 IU per day
Vitamin A is needed to heal the linings of the stomach and intestines. In one trial, supplementing with vitamin A improved healing in a small group of people with stomach ulcer.(more)
Celiac Disease
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Vitamin A deficiency may occur as a result of celiac disease, in which case vitamin A supplements or injections can be beneficial.(more)
Gastritis
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Vitamin A appears to reduce ulcer size and pain in people with ulcers and may help treat gastritis.(more)
Crohn's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Vitamin A is needed for the growth and repair of cells that line both the small and large intestine and can improve symptoms in people with Crohn's disease.(more)
Diarrhea
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Only in cases of malabsorption should vitamin A be used to treat diarrhea, as it has been shown to have no effect or to increase risk of diarrhea in well-nourished children.(more)
Menorrhagia
Dose: 50,000 IU of vitamin A each day taken under the supervision of a doctor
In one study, women with menorrhagia who took vitamin A showed significant improvement or complete normalization of menstrual blood loss.(more)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Taking vitamin A and iron together has been reported to help overcome iron deficiency more effectively than iron supplements alone.(more)
Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Very high amounts of vitamin A have reduced PMS symptoms in some studies.(more)
Vaginitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Some doctors recommend vaginal administration of vitamin A to improve the integrity of the vaginal tissue and to enhance the function of local immune cells.(more)
Abnormal Pap Smear
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Women who don't get enough vitamin A have an increased risk of cervical dysplasia, though there is little research on using vitamin A as a treatment.(more)
Wound Healing
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 25,000 IU daily
Vitamin A plays a central role in wound healing and may be useful as a supplement or in a topical ointment.(more)
Acne Vulgaris
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Under medical supervision, large quantities of vitamin A have been used successfully to treat severe acne. However, the acne typically returns after treatment is discontinued.(more)
Menorrhagia
Dose: 50,000 IU of vitamin A each day taken under the supervision of a doctor
In one study, women with menorrhagia who took vitamin A showed significant improvement or complete normalization of menstrual blood loss.(more)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Taking vitamin A and iron together has been reported to help overcome iron deficiency more effectively than iron supplements alone.(more)
Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Very high amounts of vitamin A have reduced PMS symptoms in some studies.(more)
Anemia
Dose: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily
Vitamin A deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this vitamin may restore levels and improve symptoms.(more)
Heart Attack
Dose: 50,000 IU daily
Taking vitamin A may reduce heart attack risk and may improve the outcome for people who have already had a heart attack.(more)
Wound Healing
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 25,000 IU daily
Vitamin A plays a central role in wound healing and may be useful as a supplement or in a topical ointment.(more)
Hypothyroidism
Dose: Refer to label instructions
People with hypothyroidism may have an impaired ability to convert beta-carotene to vitamin A. For this reason, some doctors suggest supplementing with vitamin A.(more)
Urinary Tract Infection
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of many infection, supplementing with it may restore levels and help support the immune system.(more)
Night Blindness
Dose: If deficient: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily
Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.(more)
Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Vitamin A deficiency has been reported in people with chronic conjunctivitis, but it is unknown whether vitamin A supplementation can help the condition.(more)
Leukoplakia
Dose: 28,500 IU daily under medical supervision
Vitamin A has been shown to be effective against leukoplakia.(more)
Type 1 Diabetes
Dose: Refer to label instructions
A combination of the antioxidants selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E has been shown to improve diabetic retinopathy.(more)
Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructions
Antioxidant nutrients including selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E may combat free radicals associated with diabetic retinopathy.(more)
Night Blindness
Dose: If deficient: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily
Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.(more)
Infection
Dose: See a doctor for evaluation of possible deficiency

Nutrients useful for maintaining healthy immune function are also applicable for preventing infections. Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.1 However, most research shows that while vitamin A supplementation helps people prevent or treat infections in developing countries where deficiencies are common,2 little to no positive effect, and even slight adverse effects, have resulted from giving vitamin A supplements to people in countries where most people consume adequate amounts of vitamin A.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Moreover, vitamin A supplementation during infections appears beneficial only in certain diseases. An analysis of trials revealed that vitamin A reduces mortality from measles and diarrhea, but not from pneumonia, in children living in developing countries.10 A double-blind trial for vitamin A supplementation in Tanzanian children with pneumonia confirmed its lack of effectiveness for this condition.11 In general, parents in the developed world should not give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a reason to believe vitamin A deficiency is likely, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease). However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles should be given high-dose vitamin A for several days.

References

1. Semba RD. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:489-99 [review].

2. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

3. Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, et al. Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics 1998;101(5):E3 [abstract].

4. Bresee JS, Fischer M, Dowell SF, et al. Vitamin A therapy for children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a multicenter trial in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:777-82.

5. Quinlan KP, Hayani KC. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:25-30.

6. Kjolhede CL, Chew FJ, Gadomski AM, et al. Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. J Pediatr 1995;126:807-12.

7. Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status in children who are prone to respiratory tract infections. Aust Paediatr J 1986;22:95-9.

8. Murphy S, West KP Jr, Greenough WB 3d, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of infection in elderly nursing-home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1992;21:435-9.

9. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

10. Ross AC. Vitamin A supplementation as therapy-are the benefits disease specific? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:8-9 [review].

11. Fawzi WW, Mbise RL, Fataki MR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:187-92.

Immune Function
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.1 However, most research shows that while vitamin A supplementation helps people prevent or treat infections in developing countries where deficiencies are common,2 little to no positive effect, and even slight adverse effects, have resulted from giving vitamin A supplements to people in countries where most people consume adequate amounts of vitamin A.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Moreover, vitamin A supplementation during infections appears beneficial only in certain diseases. An analysis of trials revealed that vitamin A reduces mortality from measles and diarrhea, but not from pneumonia, in children living in developing countries.10 A double-blind trial of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzanian children with pneumonia confirmed its lack of effectiveness for this condition.11 In general, parents in the developed world should not give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a reason to believe vitamin A deficiency is likely, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease). However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles be given short-term supplementation with high-dose vitamin A in cases of hospitalization, malnutrition, and other special circumstances determined by a doctor.12

A combination of antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E significantly improved immune cell number and activity compared with placebo in a group of hospitalized elderly people.13 Daily intake of a 1,000 mg vitamin C plus 200 IU vitamin E for four months improved several measures of immune function in a preliminary study.14 To what extent immune-boosting combinations of antioxidants actually reduce the risk of infection remains unknown.

References

1. Semba RD. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:489-99 [review].

2. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

3. Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, et al. Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics 1998;101(5):E3 [abstract].

4. Bresee JS, Fischer M, Dowell SF, et al. Vitamin A therapy for children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a multicenter trial in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:777-82.

5. Quinlan KP, Hayani KC. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:25-30.

6. Kjolhede CL, Chew FJ, Gadomski AM, et al. Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. J Pediatr 1995;126:807-12.

7. Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status in children who are prone to respiratory tract infections. Aust Paediatr J 1986;22:95-9.

8. Murphy S, West KP Jr, Greenough WB 3d, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of infection in elderly nursing-home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1992;21:435-9.

9. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

10. Ross AC. Vitamin A supplementation as therapy-are the benefits disease specific? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:8-9 [review].

11. Fawzi WW, Mbise RL, Fataki MR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:187-92.

12. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Vitamin A treatment of Measles. Pediatrics 1993;91:1014-5.

13. Penn ND, Purkins L, Kelleher J, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins A, C and E on cell-mediated immune function in elderly long-stay patients: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1991;20:169-74.

14. de la Fuente M, Ferrandez MD, Burgos MS, et al. Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:373-80.

Pre- and Post-Surgery Health
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Vitamin A plays an important role in wound healing,1 and one animal study suggests that vitamin A deficiency might contribute to poor recovery after surgery.2 Vitamin A may be particularly beneficial to post-surgical patients who are using corticosteroid medications. These medications typically slow wound healing, and a number of animal studies have found that both topical and oral vitamin A reverse this effect; however, vitamin A does not change healing time in animals not given corticosteroids.3, 4, 5 Similar results have been reported for topical vitamin A in some human cases, and these researchers suggest a topical preparation containing 200,000 IU of vitamin A per ounce for improved surgical wound healing in patients using corticosteroids after surgery.6 Topical vitamin A may also reduce scarring in patients taking corticosteroids.7

References

1. Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1994;84:456-62 [review].

2. Swartz-Basile DA, Rubin DC, Levin MS. Vitamin A status modulates intestinal adaptation after partial small bowel resection. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:81-8.

3. Ehrlich H, Hunt TK. Effects of cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Ann Surg 1968;167:324-8.

4. Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man. Ann Surg 1969;170:633-41.

5. Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Effects of vitamin A and glucocorticoids upon inflammation and collagen synthesis. Ann Surg 1973;177:222-7.

6. Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man. Ann Surg 1969;170:633-41.

7. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

HIV and AIDS Support
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Vitamin A deficiency appears to be very common in people with HIV infection. Low blood levels of vitamin A are associated with greater disease severity1 and increased transmission of the virus from a pregnant mother to her infant.2 However, in preliminary 3 and double-blind4, 5 trials, supplementation with vitamin A failed to reduce the overall mother-to-child transmission of HIV. HIV-positive women who took 5,000 IU per day of vitamin A (as retinyl palmitate) and 50,000 IU per day of beta-carotene during the third trimester (13 weeks) of pregnancy, plus an additional single amount of 200,000 IU of vitamin A at delivery, had the same rate of transmission of HIV to their infants as those who did not take the supplement. However, lower rates of illness have been observed in the children of HIV-positive mothers when the children were supplemented with 50,000-200,000 IU of vitamin A every two to three months.6

Little research has explored whether vitamin A supplements are helpful at halting disease progression. HIV-positive children given two consecutive oral supplements of vitamin A (200,000 IU in a gelcap) in the two days following influenza vaccinations had a modest but significant decrease in viral load.7 In one trial, giving people an extremely high (300,000 IU) amount of vitamin A one time only did not improve short-term measures of immunity in women with HIV.8

References

1. Semba RD, Graham NMH, Caiaffa WT, et al. Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2149-54.

2. Semba RD, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD, et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:1593-7.

3. Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, et al. Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. South African Vitamin A Study Group. AIDS 1999;13:1517-24.

4. Kennedy CM, Coutsoudis A, Kuhn L, et al. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;24:37-44.

5. Fawzi WW, Msamanga G, Hunter D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;23:246-54.

6. Coutsoudis A, Bobat RA, Coovadia HM, et al. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Am J Public Health 1995;85:1076-81.

7. Hanekom WA, Yogev R, Heald LM, et al. Effect of vitamin A therapy on serologic responses and viral load changes after influenza vaccination in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr 2000;136:550-2.

8. Humphrey JH, Quinn T, Fine D, et al. Short-term effects of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on viral load and immune response in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1999;20:44-51.

Childhood Diseases
Dose: High doses of vitamin A may be used to treat measles or chicken pox, but only under a doctor's supervision

Preliminary research shows that supplemental vitamin A improves the likelihood that the measles vaccine will provide protection.1 Vitamin A has, since the 1920s, been the subject of much research into the prevention and treatment of childhood exanthems, particularly measles.2 This nutrient has a critical role in proper immune function, and there is evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces the incidence and severity of, and deaths from, childhood measles.3, 4 The World Health Organization (WHO) has therefore recommended that children with signs of deficiency receive supplementation with vitamin A. The recommended amounts are 100,000 IU for children younger than one year and 200,000 IU for children older than one year, immediately upon diagnosis, and repeated once the next day and once in one to four weeks.5 A controlled trial of African children given vitamin A supplementation according to the WHO's recommendations found that severity of measles and its long-term consequences were reduced by 82% on day eight, 61% in week six, and 85% six months after the onset.6

Another controlled trial found that giving approximately 200,000 IU of vitamin A once during measles illness was not adequate to provide any benefit in African children whose vitamin A status was unknown.7 In a controlled prevention study, Indian children treated with 2,500 mcg (8,333 IU) of vitamin A weekly had fewer measles complications and less than half of the rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo;8 but in another study, Indian children receiving 200,000 IU of vitamin A every six months did not have a different rate of total infectious illness nor rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo.9

An analysis of 20 controlled trials concluded that vitamin A supplementation reduced deaths from measles respiratory infection by 70%.10 While vitamin A deficiency is widespread in developing countries, it has also been reported in the United States and has been linked with more severe cases of measles.11 The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended supplementation with vitamin A for children between the ages of six months and two years who are hospitalized with measles and its complications. The recommended amount is a single administration of 100,000 IU for children aged 6 to 12 months and 200,000 IU for children older than 1 year, followed by a second administration 24 hours later and a third after four weeks in children who are likely to have vitamin A deficiency.12

One trial showed that low levels of vitamin A are more prevalent in children with measles than in similar children without measles, with levels rising back to normal several days after the onset of the infection. This observation led the authors of the study to conclude that vitamin A deficiency is a consequence of infection with the measles virus and to recommend supplementation with vitamin A during measles infection even when prior deficiency is not suspected.13 Vitamin A stores have also been shown to be depleted during chicken pox infection,14 and some preliminary data supports its use in treatment of chicken pox. In a controlled trial, in which children without vitamin A deficiency were given either 200,000 IU of vitamin A or placebo one time during chicken pox, the children given vitamin A had shorter duration of illness and fewer severe complications. The researchers then treated the patients' siblings with vitamin A before chicken pox became evident, and they had an even shorter length of illness.15

References

1. Benn CS, Aaby P, Bale C, et al. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Lancet 1997;350:101-5.

2. Semba RD. Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. J Nutr 1999;129:783-91 [review].

3. Molina EL, Patel JA. A to Z: vitamin A and zinc, the miracle duo. Indian J Pediatr 1996;63:427-31 [review].

4. Malvy D. Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine. Med Trop (Mars) 1999;59:442-8 [review; in French].

5. World Health Organization. Expanded programme on immunization: programme for the prevention of blindness nutrition. Joint WHO/UNICEF statement. Vitamin A for measles. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1987;62:133-4.

6. Coutsoudis A, Broughton M, Coovadia HM. Vitamin A supplementation reduces measles morbidity in young African children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:890-5.

7. Rosales FJ, Kjolhede C. A single 210-mumol oral dose of retinol does not enhance the immune response in children with measles. J Nutr 1994;124:1604-14.

8. Rahmathullah L. Effect of receiving a weekly dose of vitamin A equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances among pre school children on mortality in south India. Indian J Pediatr 1991;58:837-47.

9. Vijayaraghavan K, Rashmiah G, Suryaprakasam B, et al. Effect of massive dose of vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. Lancet 1990;336:1342-53.

10. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

11. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

12. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Vitamin A treatment of Measles. Pediatrics 1993;91:1014-5.

13. Coutsoudis A, Coovadia HM, Broughton M, et al. Micronutrient utilisation during measles treated with vitamin A or placebo. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1991;61:199-204.

14. Campos FA, Flores H, Underwood BA. Effect of an infection on vitamin A status of children as measured by the relative dose response. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:91-4.

15. Ozsoylu S, Cemeroglu AP, Gunay M. Vitamin A for varicella. J Pediatr 1994;125:1017-8 [letter].

Measles
Dose: 200,000 IU daily for two days under medical supervision

Measles appears to increase the body's need for vitamin A.1, 2 Studies in developing countries have shown that measles infection is more frequent and severe in people with low vitamin A blood levels,3, 4 and preliminary research suggests this may also be true in the developed world.5, 6, 7 Repeatedly in controlled trials, preventive supplementation with vitamin A, at oral doses of up to 400,000 IU per day, reduced the risk of death in children with measles living in developing countries.8, 9, 10 Whether vitamin A supplementation would help people with measles in developed countries, where deficiency is uncommon, is less clear.11 However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles be given a short course of high-dose vitamin A. Two controlled studies of urban South African12 and Japanese13 children hospitalized with severe measles showed that supplementation with 100,000 to 400,000 IU of vitamin A resulted in faster recoveries, fewer complications, and fewer pneumonia-related deaths. An older study in England found one ounce per day of cod liver oil (containing about 40,000 IU of vitamin A, plus vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids) reduced measles-related deaths in children hospitalized with severe cases of the disease.14 Such large doses of vitamin A should only be taken under a doctor's supervision.

References

1. Rumore MM. Vitamin A as an immunomodulating agent. Clin Pharm 1993;12:506-14 [review].

2. West CE. Vitamin A and measles. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S46-S54.

3. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

4. Markowitz LE, Nzilambi N, Driskell WJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and mortality among hospitalized measles patients, Kinshasa, Zaire. J Trop Pediatr 1989;35:109-12.

5. Arrieta AC, Zaleska M, Stutman HR, Marks MI. Vitamin A levels in children with measles in Long Beach, California. J Pediatr 1992;121:75-8.

6. Butler JC, Havens PL, Sowell AL, et al. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States. Pediatrics 1993;91:1176-81.

7. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

8. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

9. Fawzi WW, Chalmers TC, Herrera MG, Mosteller F. Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1993;269:898-903.

10. Barclay AJ, Foster A, Sommer A. Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ 1987;294:294-6.

11. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

12. Hussey GD, Klein M. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. N Engl J Med 1990;323:160-4.

13. Kawasaki Y, Hosoya M, Katayose M, Suzuki H. The efficacy of oral vitamin A supplementation for measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1999;73:104-9 [in Japanese].

14. Ellison JB. Intensive vitamin A therapy in measles. BMJ 1932;2:708-11.

Peptic Ulcer
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 150,000 IU per day

Vitamin A is needed to heal the linings (called mucous membranes) of the stomach and intestines. In one controlled trial, vitamin A supplementation facilitated healing in a small group of people with stomach ulcer.1 The amount used in that study (150,000 IU per day) can be toxic and may also cause birth defects. Such a high dose should not be taken by a pregnant woman, by a woman who could become pregnant, or by anyone else without careful supervision from a doctor. Objective evidence of ulcer healing from taking vitamin A has been reported by the same research group.2 The effect of lower amounts of vitamin A has not been studied in people with peptic ulcer.

References

1. Patty I, Benedek S, Deak G, et al. Controlled trial of vitamin A therapy in gastric ulcer. Lancet 1982;2(8303):876 [letter].

2. Patty I, Tarnok F, Simon L, et al. A comparative dynamic study of the effectiveness of gastric cytoprotection by vitamin A, De-Nol, sucralfate and ulcer healing by pirenzepine in patients with chronic gastric ulcer (a multiclinical and randomized study). Acta Physiol Hung 1984;64:379-84.

Celiac Disease
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

In one study, six people with diet-treated celiac disease had abnormal dark-adaptation tests (indicative of "night blindness"), even though some were taking a multivitamin that contained vitamin A. Some of these people showed an improvement in dark adaptation after receiving larger amounts of vitamin A, either orally or by injection.1 People with celiac disease should discuss the possibility of vitamin A deficiency with a healthcare practitioner before taking vitamin A supplements.

References

1. Russell RM, Smith VC, Multak R, et al. Dark-adaptation testing for diagnosis of subclinical vitamin-A deficiency and evaluation of therapy. Lancet 1973;2:1161-4.

Gastritis
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Zinc and vitamin A, nutrients that aid in healing, are commonly used to help people with peptic ulcers. For example, the ulcers of people taking 50 mg of zinc three times per day healed three times faster than those of people who took placebo.1 Since some types of gastritis can progress to peptic ulcer, it is possible that taking it may be useful. Nevertheless, the research does not yet show that zinc specifically helps people with gastritis. The amount of zinc used in this study is very high compared with what most people take (15-40 mg per day). Even at these lower levels, it is necessary to take 1-3 mg of copper per day to avoid a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

References

1. Frommer DJ. The healing of gastric ulcers by zinc sulphate. Med J Aust 1975;22(21):793-6.

Crohn's Disease
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Vitamin A is needed for the growth and repair of cells that line both the small and large intestine.1 At least two case reports describe people with Crohn's disease who have responded to vitamin A supplementation.2, 3 However, in one trial, vitamin A supplementation failed to maintain remission of the disease.4 Therefore, although some doctors recommend 50,000 IU per day for adults with Crohn's disease, this approach remains unproven. An amount this high should never be taken without qualified guidance, nor should it be given to a woman who is or could become pregnant.

References

1. Dvorak AM. Vitamin A in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1980;i:1303-4.

2. Skogh M, Sundquist T, Tagesson C. Vitamin A in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1980; i:766 [letter].

3. Dvorak AM. Vitamin A in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1980;i:1303-4.

4. Wright JP, Mee AS, Parfitt A, et al. Vitamin A therapy inpatients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1985;88:512-4.

Diarrhea
Dose: Refer to label instructions

It is known vitamin A supplements support immune function and prevent infections. This is true, however, only under some circumstances. Vitamin A supplementation can also increase the risk of infections, according to the findings of a double-blind trial.1 In a study of African children between six months and five years old, a 44% reduction in the risk of severe diarrhea was seen in those children given four 100,000-200,000 IU supplements of vitamin A (the lower amount for those less than a year old) during an eight-month period. On further investigation, the researchers discovered that the reduction in diarrhea occurred only in children who were very malnourished. For children who were not starving, vitamin A supplementation actually increased the risk of diarrhea compared with the placebo group. The vitamin A-supplemented children also had a 67% increased risk of coughing and rapid breathing, and signs of further lung infection, although this problem did not appear in children infected with the AIDS virus. These findings should be of concern to American parents, whose children are not usually infected with HIV or severely malnourished. Such relatively healthy children fared poorly in the African trial in terms of both the risk of diarrhea and the risk of continued lung problems. Vitamin A provided no benefit to the well-nourished kids. Therefore, it makes sense not to give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a special reason to do so, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease).

References

1. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

Menorrhagia
Dose: 50,000 IU of vitamin A each day taken under the supervision of a doctor

In a study of women with menorrhagia who took 25,000 IU of vitamin A twice per day for 15 days, 93% showed significant improvement and 58% had a complete normalization of menstrual blood loss.1 However, women who are or could become pregnant should not supplement with more than 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) per day of vitamin A.

References

1. Lithgow DM, Politzer WM. Vitamin A in the treatment of menorrhagia. S Afr Med J 1977;51:191-3.

Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

Taking vitamin A and iron together has been reported to help overcome iron deficiency more effectively than iron supplements alone.1 Although the optimal amount of vitamin A needed to help people with iron deficiency has yet to be established, some doctors recommend 10,000 IU per day.

References

1. Mejia LA, Chew F. Hematological effect of supplementing anemic children with vitamin A alone and in combination with iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:595-600.

Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Very high amounts of vitamin A-100,000 IU per day or more-have reduced symptoms of PMS,1, 2 but such an amount can cause serious side effects with long-term use. Women who are or who could become pregnant should not supplement with more than 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) per day of vitamin A. Other people should not take more than 25,000 IU per day without the supervision of their doctor. As yet, no trials have explored the effects of these safer amounts of vitamin A in women suffering from PMS.

References

1. Block E. The use of vitamin A in premenstrual tension. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1960;39:586-92.

2. Argonz J, Abinzano C. Premenstrual tension treated with vitamin A. J Clin Endocrinol 1950;10:1579-89.

Vaginitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Some doctors recommend vitamin E (taken orally, topically, or vaginally) for certain types of vaginitis. Vitamin E as a suppository in the vagina or vitamin E oil can be used once or twice per day for 3 to 14 days to soothe the mucous membranes of the vagina and vulva. Some doctors recommend vaginal administration of vitamin A to improve the integrity of the vaginal tissue and to enhance the function of local immune cells. Vitamin A can be administered vaginally by inserting a vitamin A capsule or using a prepared vitamin A suppository. Vitamin A used this way can be irritating to local tissue, so it should not be used more than once per day for up to seven consecutive days.

Abnormal Pap Smear
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Women with a low intake of vitamin A have an increased risk of cervical dysplasia.1 However, there is little research on the use of vitamin A as a treatment for cervical dysplasia.

References

1. Romney SL, Palan PR, Duttagupta C, et al. Retinoids and the prevention of cervical dysplasias. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:890-4.

Wound Healing
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 25,000 IU daily

Vitamin A plays a central role in wound healing,1 but the effect of supplemental vitamin A in people who have suffered a minor injury and are not vitamin A-deficient remains unclear. Vitamin A supplements have been shown to improve healing in animal studies,2 and may be especially useful in a topical ointment for skin injuries in people taking corticosteroid medications.3 Although there are no studies in humans, some doctors recommend 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day, beginning two weeks prior to surgery and continuing for four weeks after surgery.

References

1. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

2. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

3. Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man. Ann Surg 1969;170:633-41.

Acne Vulgaris
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Large quantities of vitamin A-such as 300,000 IU per day for females and 400,000-500,000 IU per day for males-have been used successfully to treat severe acne.1 However, unlike the long-lasting benefits of the synthetic prescription version of vitamin A (isotretinoin as Accutane), the acne typically returns several months after natural vitamin A is discontinued. In addition, the large amounts of vitamin A needed to control acne can be toxic and should be used only under careful medical supervision.

References

1. Kligman AM, Mills OH Jr, Leyden JJ, et al. Oral vitamin A in acne vulgaris. Preliminary report. Int J Dermatol 1981;20:278-85.

Menorrhagia
Dose: 50,000 IU of vitamin A each day taken under the supervision of a doctor

In a study of women with menorrhagia who took 25,000 IU of vitamin A twice per day for 15 days, 93% showed significant improvement and 58% had a complete normalization of menstrual blood loss.1 However, women who are or could become pregnant should not supplement with more than 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) per day of vitamin A.

References

1. Lithgow DM, Politzer WM. Vitamin A in the treatment of menorrhagia. S Afr Med J 1977;51:191-3.

Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Dose: Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner

Taking vitamin A and iron together has been reported to help overcome iron deficiency more effectively than iron supplements alone.1 Although the optimal amount of vitamin A needed to help people with iron deficiency has yet to be established, some doctors recommend 10,000 IU per day.

References

1. Mejia LA, Chew F. Hematological effect of supplementing anemic children with vitamin A alone and in combination with iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:595-600.

Premenstrual Syndrome
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Very high amounts of vitamin A-100,000 IU per day or more-have reduced symptoms of PMS,1, 2 but such an amount can cause serious side effects with long-term use. Women who are or who could become pregnant should not supplement with more than 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) per day of vitamin A. Other people should not take more than 25,000 IU per day without the supervision of their doctor. As yet, no trials have explored the effects of these safer amounts of vitamin A in women suffering from PMS.

References

1. Block E. The use of vitamin A in premenstrual tension. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1960;39:586-92.

2. Argonz J, Abinzano C. Premenstrual tension treated with vitamin A. J Clin Endocrinol 1950;10:1579-89.

Anemia
Dose: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily

Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.1 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A,2, 3vitamin B2,4vitamin B6,5, 6vitamin C,7 and copper,8, 9 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1.10, 11

References

1. Little DR. Ambulatory management of common forms of anemia. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1598-604 [review].

2. Hodges RE, Sauberlich HE, Canham JE, et al. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:876-85 [review].

3. Bloem MW. Interdependence of vitamin A and iron: an important association for programmes of anaemia control. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:501-8 [review].

4. Lane M, Alfrey CP. The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 1965;25:432-42.

5. Orehek AJ, Kollas CD. Refractory postpartum anemia due to vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):834-5 [letter].

6. Iwama H, Iwase O, Hayashi S, et al. Macrocytic anemia with anisocytosis due to alcohol abuse and vitamin B6 deficiency. Rinsho Ketsueki 1998;39:1127-30 [in Japanese].

7. Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ. Adult scurvy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:895-906 [review].

8. Summerfield AL, Steinberg FU, Gonzalez JG. Morphologic findings in bone marrow precursor cells in zinc-induced copper deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:665-8.

9. Freycon F, Pouyau G. Rare nutritional deficiency anemia: deficiency of copper and vitamin E. Sem Hop 1983;59:488-93 [review] [in French].

10. Borgna-Pignatti C, Marradi P, Pinelli L, et al. Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome. J Pediatr 1989;114:405-10.

11. Neufeld EJ, Mandel H, Raz T, et al. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:1335-41.

Heart Attack
Dose: 50,000 IU daily

Blood levels of the antioxidant nutrients vitamins A, C, and E, and beta-carotene are reported to be lower in people with a history of heart attack, compared with healthy individuals.1 The number of free radical molecules is also higher, suggesting a need for antioxidants. Streptokinase, a drug therapy commonly used immediately following a heart attack, enhances the need for antioxidants.2

Taking antioxidant supplements may improve the outcome for people who have already had a heart attack. In one double-blind trial, people were given 50,000 IU of vitamin A per day, 1,000 mg of vitamin C per day, 600 IU of vitamin E per day, and approximately 41,500 IU of beta-carotene per day or placebo.3 After 28 days, the infarct size of those receiving antioxidants was significantly smaller than the infarct size of the placebo group.

Low levels of beta-carotene in fatty tissue have been linked to an increased incidence of heart attacks, particularly among smokers.4 One population study found that eating a diet high in beta-carotene is associated with a lower rate of nonfatal heart attacks.5 However, beta-carotene supplementation may not offer the same protection provided by foods that contain beta-carotene. Most,6, 7 but not all, trials8 have found that supplemental beta-carotene is not associated with a reduced risk of heart attacks.

References

1. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, et al. Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Acta Cardiol 1994;49:441-52.

2. Levy Y, Bartha P, Ben-Amotz A, et al. Plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in acute myocardial infarction and thrombolysis. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:337-41.

3. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Tastogi S. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3). Am J Cardiol 1996;77:232-6.

4. Kardinaal AFM, Kok FJ, Ringstad J, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: the EURAMIC study. Lancet 1993;342:1379-84.

5. Tavani A, Negri E, D'Avanzo B, La Vecchia C. Beta-carotene intake and risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in women. Eur J Epidemiol 1997;13:631-7.

6. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infraction. Lancet 1997;349:1715-20.

7. Virtamo J, Rapola JM, Ripatti S, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of primary nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:668-75.

8. Klipstein-Grobusch K, Geleijnse JM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:261-6.

Wound Healing
Dose: Take under medical supervision: 25,000 IU daily

Vitamin A plays a central role in wound healing,1 but the effect of supplemental vitamin A in people who have suffered a minor injury and are not vitamin A-deficient remains unclear. Vitamin A supplements have been shown to improve healing in animal studies,2 and may be especially useful in a topical ointment for skin injuries in people taking corticosteroid medications.3 Although there are no studies in humans, some doctors recommend 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day, beginning two weeks prior to surgery and continuing for four weeks after surgery.

References

1. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

2. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

3. Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man. Ann Surg 1969;170:633-41.

Hypothyroidism
Dose: Refer to label instructions

People with hypothyroidism have been shown to have an impaired ability to convert beta-carotene to vitamin A.1, 2 For this reason, some doctors suggest taking supplemental vitamin A (approximately 5,000-10,000 IU per day) if they are not consuming adequate amounts in their diet.

References

1. Smolle J, Wawschinek O, Hayn H, Eber O. Vitamin A and carotene in thyroid disease. Acta Med Austriaca 1983;10:71-3 [in German].

2. Aktuna D, Buchinger W, Langsteger W, et al. Beta-carotene, vitamin A and carrier proteins in thyroid diseases. Acta Med Austriaca 1993;20:17-20 [in German].

Urinary Tract Infection
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of many infections. Although much of the promising research with vitamin A supplements and infections has focused on measles,1 vitamin A is also thought to be helpful in other infections. Some doctors recommend that people with urinary tract infections take vitamin A. A typical amount recommended to correct a deficiency is 10,000 to 25,000 IU per day.

References

1. Hussey GD, Klein M. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. N Engl J Med 1990;323:160-4.

Night Blindness
Dose: If deficient: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily

Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.1, 2 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

References

1. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

2. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis
Dose: Refer to label instructions

Vitamin A deficiency has been reported in people with chronic conjunctivitis.1 It is unknown whether vitamin A supplementation can prevent conjunctivitis or help people who already have the condition.

References

1. Rankov BG. Vitamin A and carotene concentration in serum in persons with chronic conjunctivitis and pterygium. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1976;46:454-7 [in German].

Leukoplakia
Dose: 28,500 IU daily under medical supervision

Beta-carotene is the most widely used supplement in the treatment of leukoplakia. In a clinical trial of betel nut chewers with leukoplakia, supplementation with 150,000 IU of beta-carotene twice per week for six months significantly increased the remission rate compared with placebo (14.8% vs. 3.0%).1 The effectiveness of beta-carotene for treating leukoplakia was also confirmed in a double-blind trial that used 100,000 IU per day for six months.2 In one trial, supplementation with 33, 333 IU of beta-carotene per day, alone or combined with 50 IU of vitamin E, was reported not to reduce the incidence of leukoplakia.3 These results have also been observed in smaller trials.4, 5

Drug therapy with a synthetic, prescription form of vitamin A (known as Accutane(R), isotretinoin, and 13-cis retinoic acid) has been reported to be more effective than treatment with 50,000 IU per day of beta-carotene.6 However, because of the potential toxicity of the vitamin A-like drug, it may be preferable to treat leukoplakia with beta-carotene, which is much safer.

Before the research on beta-carotene was published, vitamin A was used to treat leukoplakia.7 One group of researchers reported that vitamin A (28,500 IU per day) was more effective than beta-carotene in treating people with leukoplakia.8 Another trial found that the combination of 150,000 IU per week of beta-carotene plus 100,000 IU per week of vitamin A led to a significant increase in remission time compared to beta carotene alone in betel nut chewers.9 Women who are or who could become pregnant should not take 100,000 IU of vitamin A per week without medical supervision.

References

1. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Hornby AP, et al. Remission of oral leukoplakias and micronuclei in tobacco/betel quid chewers treated with beta-carotene and with beta-carotene plus vitamin A. Int J Cancer 1988;42:195-9.

2. Garewal HS, Katz RV, Meyskens F, et al. beta-Carotene produces sustained remission in patients with oral leukoplakia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1305-10.

3. Liede K, Hietanen J, Saxen L, et al. Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers. Oral Dis 1998;4:78-83.

4. Toma S, Benso S, Albanese E, et al. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with beta-carotene. Oncology 1992;49:77-81.

5. Garewal HS, Meyskens FL Jr, Killen D, et al. Response of oral leukoplakia to beta-carotene. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1715-20.

6. Lippman SM, Batsakis JG, Toth BB, et al. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis. N Engl J Med 1993;328:15-20.

7. Johnson J, Ringsdorf W, Cheraskin E. Relationship of vitamin A and oral leukoplakia. Arch Derm 1963;88:607-12.

8. Stich HF, Mathews B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair MK. Remission of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers and maintenance of the protective effect of beta-carotene or vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:298S-304S.

9. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Hornby AP, et al. Remission of oral leukoplakias and micronuclei in tobacco/betel quid chewers treated with beta-carotene and with beta-carotene plus vitamin A. Int J Cancer 1988;42:195-9.

Type 1 Diabetes
Dose: Refer to label instructionsBecause oxidation damage is believed to play a role in the development of diabetic eye damage (retinopathy), antioxidant nutrients might be protective. One doctor has administered a daily regimen of 500 mcg selenium, 800 IU vitamin E, 10,000 IU vitamin A, and 1,000 mg vitamin C for several years to 20 people with diabetic eye damage (retinopathy). During that time, 19 of the 20 people showed either improvement or no progression of their retinopathy.1 People who wish to supplement with more than 250 mcg of selenium per day should consult a healthcare practitioner.
References

1. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77-98.

Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy
Dose: Refer to label instructionsBecause oxidation damage is believed to play a role in the development of diabetic eye damage (retinopathy), antioxidant nutrients might be protective. One doctor has administered a daily regimen of 500 mcg selenium, 800 IU vitamin E, 10,000 IU vitamin A, and 1,000 mg vitamin C for several years to 20 people with diabetic eye damage (retinopathy). During that time, 19 of the 20 people showed either improvement or no progression of their retinopathy.1 People who wish to supplement with more than 250 mcg of selenium per day should consult a healthcare practitioner.
References

1. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77-98.

Night Blindness
Dose: If deficient: 10,000 to 25,000 IU daily

Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.1, 2 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

References

1. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

2. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with four major functions in the body: (1) It helps cells reproduce normally-a process called differentiation (cells that have not properly differentiated are more likely to undergo pre-cancerous changes). (2) It is required for vision; vitamin A maintains healthy cells in various structures of the eye and is required for the transduction of light into nerve signals in the retina. (3) It is required for normal growth and development of the embryo and fetus, influencing genes that determine the sequential development of organs in embryonic development. (4) It may be required for normal reproductive function, with influences on the function and development of sperm, ovaries and placenta.

Copyright 2014 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com

The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.

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Ratings and Reviews

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VALUE COSMETICSGNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream
 
4.2

(based on 38 reviews)

86%

of respondents would recommend this to a friend.

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(1 of 1 customers found this review helpful)

 
4.0

Improvement of Psoriasis less than 24 hr

By PrttyMstng

from Tampa, FL

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  • Improves Skin Texture
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  • Not Greasy

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      Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

      I have had psoriasis on my feet for 10 years. It comes and goes but I had a flare up a few months ago that made me see a dermatologist. The perscriptions I tried did not work and were very expensive. I began looking into alternative therapies and found that vitamin D cream might work. I decided to try this cream. I applied the moisturizer and wrapped my feet in plastic wrap yesterday afternoon. I did the same before bed last night. I am amazed at the improvement of my psoriasis in less than 24 hours.

      (1 of 1 customers found this review helpful)

       
      5.0

      My favorite moisturizer!

      By dituttle

      from OH

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      Pros

      • Balances Skin
      • Gentle
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      • Leaves Clean Feel
      • Moisturizing
      • Not Greasy

      Cons

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        • Daily Use
        • Dry Skin

        Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

        I am in my 50s and have been using this for years to moisturize my face at night. It has a nice light feel and it keeps my skin supple. It's a great deal for the price!

        (0 of 4 customers found this review helpful)

         
        5.0

        I really like this

        By stubborn_meng

        from USA

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        • Smells Great

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          • Daily Use
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          Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

          This is so great.

          (2 of 2 customers found this review helpful)

           
          5.0

          I would buy this product again

          By whargain07

          from North Port ,Fl

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            • Daily Use

            Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

            Things that are great about it

             
            5.0

            Night Use

            By lysawang11

            from CA

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            Pros

            • Gentle
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              • Acne-Prone Skin
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              • Daily Use
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              Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

              I use this at night everyday because I have dry/combination skin. It's great. Plus I'm acne-prone and this doesn't break me out.

               
              5.0

              GOOD

              By ren.angela

              from ca

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                  Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

                  DAILY USE

                   
                  5.0

                  This product is priceless.

                  By omarhaughton

                  from Powder Springs, GA.

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                  • Balances Skin
                  • Gentle
                  • Improves Skin Texture
                  • Leaves Clean Feel
                  • Moisturizing
                  • Not Greasy
                  • Smells Great

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                    Best Uses

                    • Acne-Prone Skin
                    • Daily Use
                    • Dry Skin
                    • Sensitive Skin

                    Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

                    This product is affordable and effective.

                    (3 of 3 customers found this review helpful)

                     
                    4.0

                    Great light face cream

                    By c2396

                    from SF Bay Area, CA

                    About Me Budget Buyer

                    See all my reviews

                    Verified Buyer

                    Pros

                    • Balances Skin
                    • Doesn't clog pores
                    • Gentle
                    • Great Value For Money
                    • Leaves Clean Feel
                    • Moisturizing
                    • Not Greasy

                    Cons

                    • Not Good As A Night Cream

                    Best Uses

                    • Daily Use
                    • Daytime Face Cream
                    • Dry Skin
                    • Mid-day Face Refresher

                    Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

                    I use this is a daytime face cream. I'm 63 and have dry skin, so I use this only during the day and sometimes put something a bit more intensively moisturizing on top of it. I use a heavier cream at night before bed. But this is great during the day. I don't use foundation or powder, so I also use this on my face mid-day as a nice little hit of light moisture to perk up my face. This is a great value for the money, it absorbs quickly, it doesn't have much of a scent (a plus in my book!), and it doesn't clog my pores or cause breakouts (yes, you can still get them at 63). Along with proper nutrition and good hydration, this keeps my skin looking and feeling fresh, healthy and alive, keeps that tight-dry-skin feeling away.

                     
                    4.0

                    cream

                    By aliu00

                    from plano,tx

                    About Me Brand Buyer

                    See all my reviews

                    Verified Buyer

                    Pros

                    • Gentle
                    • Moisturizing
                    • Smells Great

                    Cons

                      Best Uses

                        Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

                        skin care

                        (1 of 1 customers found this review helpful)

                         
                        4.0

                        Light and Referhing

                        By pauleide

                        from Overland Park KS

                        About Me Budget Buyer

                        See all my reviews

                        Verified Buyer

                        Pros

                        • Gentle
                        • Not Greasy

                        Cons

                          Best Uses

                          • Daily Use

                          Comments about VALUE COSMETICS GNC Vitamins E, A & D Moisturizing Cream:

                          This was a good deal compared to the department store $50- 100 lotions.

                          Displaying reviews 1-10

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