As a dietary supplement, take two capsules with at least 8 fl. oz. of water or other fluid daily. Taking this product without enough liquid may cause choking. See warning.
|Serving Size 2 Capsules|
|Servings Per Container 60|
|Amount Per Serving||% DV|
|Total Carbohydrate||1.00 g||1%|
|Dietary Fiber||1.00 g||4%|
|Proprietary Blend||400.00 mg||0%|
|Psyllium Seed Husks Powder (Plantago ovata)||**|
|Glucomannan Powder (Amoraphophalllus konjac)||**|
|** Daily Value (DV) not established|
Other Ingredients: Cellulose, Gelatin
No Starch, No Artificial Colors, No Artificial Flavors, Sodium Free, No Wheat, No Gluten, No Corn, No Soy, No Dairy, Yeast Free
Storage Instructions: Store in a cool dry place.
Warning: Taking this product without adequate fluid may cause it to swell and block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have difficulty in swallowing. If you experience chest pain, vomiting, or difficulty in swallowing or breathing after taking this product, seek immediate medical attention.
Consult your physician prior to using this product if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition. Discontinue use two weeks prior to surgery.
Keep out of reach of children
Contains: Crustaceans (shrimp)
Distributed by:General Nutrition CorporationPittsburgh, PA 15222Made in the USA
1. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation does not affect fat absorption in healthy males fed a high-fat diet, a pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:119-22.
2. Guerciolini R, Radu-Radulescu L, Boldrin M, et al. Comparative evaluation of fecal fat excretion induced by orlistat and chitosan. Obes Res 2001;9:364-7.
3. Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Krotkiewski M, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Zurakowski A. Effect of chitosan in complex management of obesity. Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2002;13:129-32 [in Polish].
4. Kaats GR, Michalek JE, Preuss HG. Evaluating efficacy of a chitosan product using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25:389-94.
5. Ho SC, Tai ES, Eng PH, et al. In the absence of dietary surveillance, chitosan does not reduce plasma lipids or obesity in hypercholesterolaemic obese Asian subjects. Singapore Med J 2001;42:006-10.
6. Pittler MH, Abbot NC, Harkness EF, Ernst E. Randomized, double-blind trial of chitosan for body weight reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:379-81.
7. Muzzarelli RA. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of chitosan for hypercholesterolemia and overweight control. EXS 1999;87:293-304 [review].
The fiber-like supplement chitosan appears to reduce the absorption of bile acids or cholesterol; either of these effects may cause a lowering of blood cholesterol. 1 This effect has been repeatedly demonstrated in animals, and a preliminary human study showed that 3 to 6 grams per day of chitosan taken for two weeks resulted in a 6% drop in cholesterol and a 10% increase in HDL ("good") cholesterol.2 Another preliminary trial showed a 43% lowering of total cholesterol in people being treated for kidney failure with dialysis who took 4 grams per day of chitosan for 12 weeks. These people also appeared to have improved kidney function and less severe anemia after chitosan treatment. 3 In a double-blind trial, however, administration of 2.4 grams of chitosan per day for three months to people with high cholesterol had no effect on their cholesterol levels. 4 Another study also found no cholesterol-lowering effect of chitosan when taken in amounts up to 6.75 grams per day for 8 weeks.5
Chitosan in large amounts, given with vitamin C, has been shown to reduce dietary fat absorption in animals fed a high-fat diet.6, 7, 8 However, the absorption of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins was also reduced by feeding animals large amounts of chitosan.9 In studies in humans, chitosan did not reduce the absorption of dietary fat.10, 11
1. Koide SS. Chitin-chitosan: properties, benefits and risks. Nutr Res 1998;18:1091-101 [review].
2. Maezaki Y, Tsuji K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of chitosan in adult males. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1993;57:1439-44.
3. Jing SB, Li L, Ji D, et al. Effect of chitosan on renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49:721-3.
4. Metso S, Ylitalo R, Nikkila M, et al. The effect of long-term microcrystalline chitosan therapy on plasma lipids and glucose concentrations in subjects with increased plasma total cholesterol: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial in healthy men and women. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003;59:741-6.
5. Tapola NS, Lyyra ML, Kolehmainen RM, et al. Safety aspects and cholesterol-lowering efficacy of chitosan tablets. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:22-30.
6. Deuchi K, Kanauchi O, Imasato Y, et al. Effect of the viscosity or deacetylation degree of chitosan on fecal fat excreted from rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1995;59:781-5.
7. Deuchi K, Kanauchi O, Imasato Y, et al. Decreasing effect of chitosan on the apparent fat digestibility by rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994;58:1613-6.
8. Kanauchi O, Deuchi K, Imasato Y, et al. Increasing effect of a chitosan and ascorbic acid mixture on fecal dietary fat excretion. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994;58:1617-20.
9. Deuchi K, Kanauchi O, Shizukuishi M, et al. Continuous and massive intake of chitosan affects mineral and fat-soluble vitamin status in rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1995;59:1211-6.
10. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation and fecal fat excretion in men. Obes Res 2003;11:683-8.
11. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation does not affect fat absorption in healthy males fed a high-fat diet, a pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:119-22.
Chitosan is a polysaccharide found in the shells of crustaceans.
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