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Optimum Nutrition Glutamine Powder - Unflavored
Sale Price: $46.99
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QTY: 240 Softgel Capsules
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5,000 MG GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENT
THE BIGGER PICTURE OF GLUTAMINE - Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and plays an important role in muscle proteindevelopment. During prolonged periods of intense exercise, glutamine levels may be depleted faster than thebody can replenish them, which limits protein synthesis and can even encourage muscle breakdown.† OurGlutamine Powder is a simple way to supplement your diet with this key amino acid. Just one teaspoon ofGlutamine Powder provides more glutamine than 5 jumbo eggs, 4 oz. of lean beef, 3/4 cup of soybeans, or achicken breast. Better yet, our Glutamine Powder is unflavored and it mixes easily, so that it can be addedright into your protein, meal-replacement, and weight-gainer shakes.
- Supplement Facts
DIRECTIONS: Mix one rounded teaspoon of Glutamine Powderwith 8 oz. water or your favorite beverage.
Serving Size 1 rounded teaspoon(s) Servings Per Container 200 Amount Per Serving % DV L-Glutamine 5.00 g ** ** Daily Value (DV) not established
Other Ingredients: None.
Storage Instructions: STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. CONTENTS SOLD BY WEIGHT NOT VOLUME.
Warning: Consult your physician prior to using this product it you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, under 18 years of age or have a medical condition. Discontinue use two weeks prior to surgery.KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
Sunrise, FL 33325
©2007 OPTIMUM NUTRITION, INC
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. CHECK WITH A QUALIFIED HEALTHCAREPROFESSIONAL BEFORE USING THIS PRODUCT IF YOU ARE UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE,PREGNANT OR NURSING A BABY OR IF YOU HAVE ANY KNOWN OR SUSPECTED MEDICALCONDITION(S) AND/OR ARE TAKING ANY PRESCRIPTION OR OTC MEDICATION(S).
- Health Notes
GlutamineGlutamineThis nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
- Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:Pre- and Post-Surgery HealthDose: 20 grams dailyStudies have shown that using glutamine-enriched formulas after surgery increased immune cell activity, shortened hospital stays, improved nutritional status, and reduced infections.(more)Immune Function and Post-Exercise InfectionDose: Refer to label instructionsA study giving athletes glutamine, an amino acid important for immune system function, reported significantly fewer infections with glutamine.(more)HIV and AIDS Support and Preservation of Lean Body MassDose: 1.5 grams of HMB, 7 grams of L-glutamine, and 7 grams of L-arginine twice per dayThe combination of glutamine, arginine, and HMB may prevent loss of lean body mass in people with AIDS-associated wasting.(more)DiarrheaDose: 136 mg per pound of body weightGlutamine appears to be beneficial for diarrhea by improving the health of the intestinal lining, rather than by affecting the immune system.(more)GastritisDose: Refer to label instructionsThe amino acid glutamine is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and may increase blood flow to this region.(more)Peptic UlcerDose: Refer to label instructionsGlutamine, an amino acid, is the main energy source for cells that line the small intestine and stomach. Supplementing with it may help people overcome peptic ulcers.(more)Athletic Performance and Post-Exercise InfectionDose: 5 grams after exercise, then again two hours laterThe amino acid glutamine may benefit athlete's immune systems. Double-blind trials giving athletes glutamine reported 81% having no subsequent infection compared with 49% in the placebo group.(more)Pre- and Post-Surgery HealthDose: 20 grams daily
Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, supports the health of the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract and is important for immune function.1 Glutamine is depleted when the body is under stress, including the stress of surgery.2 Blood levels of glutamine decrease following surgery, and as they return to normal, their increase parallels the increase in immune cells.3 Two controlled trials have shown that the use of glutamine-enriched intravenous formulas, providing approximately 20 grams of glutamine per day, resulted in increased immune cell activity and shorter hospital stays.4, 5 Double-blind studies report that patients receiving intravenous formulas supplemented with glutamine after surgery had better nutritional status and better health outcomes, including fewer infections and other complications, compared with patients receiving regular formulas.6, 7References
1. Campos FG, Waitzberg DL, Logulo AF, et al. The role of glutamine in nutrition in clinical practice. Arq Gastroenterol 1996;33:86-92 [review, in Portugese].
2. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].
3. Greig JE, Keast D, Garcia-Webb P, Crawford P. Inter-relationships between glutamine and other biochemical and immunological changes after major vascular surgery. Br J Biomed Sci 1996;53:116-21.
4. Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, et al. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg 1998;227:302-8.
5. O'Riordain MG, De Beaux A, Fearon KC. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition 1996;12:S82-4.
6. Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, et al. The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999;23:S62-6.
7. Morais AA, Santos JE, Faintuch J. Comparative study of arginine and glutamine supplements in malnourished surgical patients. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 1995;50:276-9 [in Portugese].Immune Function and Post-Exercise InfectionDose: Refer to label instructionsThe amino acid glutamine is important for immune system function. Liquid diets high in glutamine have been reported in controlled studies to be more helpful to critically ill people than other diets.1, 2 Endurance athletes are susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections after heavy exercise, which depletes glutamine levels in blood.3 Although the effects of glutamine supplementation on immune function after exercise have been inconsistent,4, 5 a double-blind study giving athletes glutamine (2.5 grams after exercise and again two hours later) reported significantly fewer infections with glutamine.6References
1. Jones C, Palmer TE, Griffiths RD. Randomized clinical outcome study of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented enteral nutrition. Nutrition 1999;15:108-15.
2. Griffiths RD. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine. Nutrition 1997;13:752-4 [review].
3. Nieman DC. Exercise and resistance to infection. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:573-80 [review].
4. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.
5. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32 [review].
6. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:488-90.HIV and AIDS Support and Preservation of Lean Body MassDose: 1.5 grams of HMB, 7 grams of L-glutamine, and 7 grams of L-arginine twice per day
The combination of glutamine, arginine, and the amino acid derivative, hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB), may prevent loss of lean body mass in people with AIDS-associated wasting. In a double-blind trial, AIDS patients who had lost 5% of their body weight in the previous three months received either placebo or a nutrient mixture containing 1.5 grams of HMB, 7 grams of L-glutamine, and 7 grams of L-arginine twice daily for eight weeks.1 Those supplemented with placebo gained an average of 0.37 pounds, mostly fat, but lost lean body mass. Those taking the nutrient mixture gained an average of 3 pounds, 85% of which was lean body weight.ReferencesHIV and AIDS SupportDose: Refer to label instructions
The amino acidglutamine is needed for the synthesis of glutathione, an important antioxidant within cells that is frequently depleted in people with HIV and AIDS.1 In well-nourished people, the body usually manufactures enough glutamine to prevent a deficiency. However, people with HIV or AIDS are often malnourished and may be deficient in glutamine.2 In such people, glutamine supplementation may be needed, along with NAC, to maintain adequate levels of glutathione. It is not known how much glutamine is needed for that purpose; however, in other trials, 4-8 grams of glutamine per day was used.3 In a double-blind trial, massive amounts of glutamine (40 grams per day) in combination with several antioxidants (27,000 IU per day of beta-carotene; 800 mg per day of vitamin C; 280 mcg per day of selenium; 500 IU per day of vitamin E) were given for 12 weeks to AIDS patients experiencing problems maintaining normal weight.4 Those who took the glutamine-antioxidant combination experienced significant gains in body weight compared with those taking placebo. Larger trials are needed to determine the possible benefits of this nutrient combination on reducing opportunistic infections and long-term mortality.References
1. Robinson MK, Hong RW, Wilmore DW. Glutathione deficiency and HIV infection. Lancet 1992;339:1603-4.
2. Shabert JK, Wilmore DW. Glutamine deficiency as a cause of human immunodeficiency virus wasting. Med Hypotheses 1996;46:252-6.
3. Noyer CM, Simon D, Borczuk A, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of glutamine therapy for abnormal intestinal permeability in patients with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:972-5 .
4. Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition 1999;15:860-4.DiarrheaDose: 136 mg per pound of body weight
In a double-blind study of children (ages six months to two years) with acute diarrhea, supplementing with glutamine significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea by 26%.1 Children were given 136 mg of glutamine per pound of body weight per day for seven days. Glutamine appeared to work by improving the health of the intestinal lining, rather than through any effect on the immune system.ReferencesGastritisDose: Refer to label instructions
Various amino acids have shown promise for people with gastritis. In a double-blind trial, taking 200 mg of cysteine four times daily provided significant benefit for people with bleeding gastritis caused by NSAIDs (such as aspirin).1 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that stimulates healing of gastritis. In a preliminary trial, 1-4 grams per day of NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) given to people with atrophic gastritis for four weeks appeared to increase healing.2Glutamine, another amino acid is a main energy source for cells in the stomach and supplementation may increase blood flow to this region.3 Patients in surgical intensive care units often develop gastrointestinal problems related to a glutamine deficiency.4 When burn victims were supplemented with glutamine, they did not develop stress ulcers, even after several operations.5 Nevertheless, it remains unclear to what extent glutamine supplementation might prevent or help existing gastritis. Preliminary evidence suggests the amino acid arginine may both protect the stomach and increase its blood flow,6 but research has yet to investigate the effects of arginine supplementation in people with gastritis.References
1. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg 1993;36(1):53-8.
2. Farinati F, Cardin R, Della Libera G, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia: a phase III pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:724-33.
3. Houdijk AP, Van Leeuwen PA, Boermeester MA, et al. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat. Am J Physiol 1994;267(6 Pt 1):G1035-40.
4. Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, et al. The gut: a central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 1988;104:917-23.
5. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.
6. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, et al. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol 1997;32(4):442-52.Peptic UlcerDose: Refer to label instructions
Glutamine, an amino acid, is the principal source of energy for cells that line the small intestine and stomach. More than 40 years ago, glutamine was reported to help people with peptic ulcer in a preliminary trial.1 Glutamine has also prevented stress ulcers triggered by severe burns in another preliminary study.2 Despite the limited amount of published research, some doctors suggest 500 to 1,000 mg of glutamine taken two to three times per day to help people overcome peptic ulcers.References
1. Shive W, Snider RN, DuBilier B, et al. Glutamine in treatment of peptic ulcer. Texas State J Med 1957;Nov:840.
2. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.Athletic Performance and Post-Exercise InfectionDose: 5 grams after exercise, then again two hours later
The amino acid glutamine appears to play a role in several aspects of human physiology that might benefit athletes, including their muscle function and immune system.1 Intense exercise lowers blood levels of glutamine, which can remain persistently low with overtraining.2 Glutamine supplementation raises levels of growth hormone at an intake of 2 grams per day,3 an effect of interest to some athletes because of the role of growth hormone in stimulating muscle growth,4 and glutamine, given intravenously, was found to be more effective than other amino acids at helping replenish muscle glycogen after exercise.5 However, glutamine supplementation (30 mg per 2.2 pounds body weight) has not improved performance of short-term, high-intensity exercise such as weightlifting or sprint cycling by trained athletes,6, 7 and no studies on endurance performance or muscle growth have been conducted. Although the effects of glutamine supplementation on immune function after exercise have been inconsistent,8, 9 double-blind trials giving athletes glutamine (5 grams after intense, prolonged exercise, then again two hours later) reported 81% having no subsequent infection compared with 49% in the placebo group.10References
1. Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Can J Appl Physiol 1999;24:1-14 [review].
2. Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med 1996;21:80-97 [review].
3. Welbourne TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1058-61.
4. Macintyre JG. Growth hormone and athletes. Sports Med 1987;4:129-42 [review].
5. Varnier M, Leese GP, Thompson J, et al. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1995;269:E309-15.
6. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:157-60.
7. Haub MD, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, et al. Acute L-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998;38:240-4.
8. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.
9. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32 [review].
10. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:488-90.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (protein building block) in the body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Glutamine is converted to glucose when more glucose is required by the body as an energy source. It serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines. Without it, these cells waste away. It is also used by white blood cells and is important for immune function.
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