USAGE: Take 1 softgel per day, or as directed by your qualified health care consultant.
|Serving Size 1 softgels|
|Servings Per Container 60|
|Amount Per Serving||% DV|
|MK-7 (vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7)||90.00 mcg||**|
|** Daily Value (DV) not established|
Other Ingredients: Medium Chain Triglycerides, Evening Primrose Oil, Beeswax, Lecithin, Gelatin, Water, Glycerin, Caramel
No wheat, no gluten, no dairy, no egg, no fish/shellfish, no peanuts/tree nuts.
Warning: Consult your physician prior to using this product it you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, under 18 years of age or have a medical condition. Discontinue use two weeks prior to surgery.KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
WARNING: Do not use if taking anticoagulant drugs (such as Warfarin) or other medications.
Los Angeles, CA 90035-4317
Vitamin K is needed for bone formation. People with osteoporosis have been reported to have low blood levels1, 2 and low dietary intake of vitamin K.3, 4 One study found that postmenopausal (though not premenopausal) women may reduce urinary loss of calcium by taking 1 mg of vitamin K per day.5 People with osteoporosis given large amounts of vitamin K2 (45 mg per day) have shown an increase in bone density after six months6 and decreased bone loss after one7 or two8 years.
Other preliminary studies have reported that vitamin K supplementation increases bone formation in some women9 and that higher vitamin K intake correlates with greater bone mineral density.10 However, a double-blind study found that supplementing with 500 mcg of vitamin K1 per day for three years had no effect on bone mineral density, when compared with a placebo.11 Some doctors recommend 1 mg vitamin K1 to postmenopausal women as a way to help maintain bone mass, though optimal intake remains unknown.
1. Hart JP. Circulating vitamin K1 levels in fractured neck of femur. Lancet 1984;2:283 [letter].
2. Tamatani M, Morimoto S, Nakajima M, et al. Decreased circulating levels of vitamin K and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in osteopenic elderly men. Metabolism 1998;47:195-9.
3. Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-9.
4. Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1201-8.
5. Knapen MHJ, Hamulyak K, Vermeer C. The effect of vitamin K supplementation on circulating osteocalcin (Bone Gla protein) and urinary calcium excretion. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:1001-5.
6. Orimo H, Shiraki M, Fujita T, et al. Clinical evaluation of Menatetrenone in the treatment of involutional osteoporosis-a double-blind multicenter comparative study with 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3. J Bone Mineral Res 1992;7(Suppl 1):S122.
7. Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-4.
8. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:515-21.
9. Craciun AM, Wolf J, Knapen MH, et al. Improved bone metabolism in female elite athletes after vitamin K supplementation. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:479-84.
10. Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-9.
11. Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, et al. Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:1217-23.
The malabsorption that occurs in celiac disease can lead to multiple nutritional deficiencies. The most common nutritional problems in people with celiac disease include deficiencies of essential fatty acids, iron, vitamin D, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid.1Zinc malabsorption also occurs frequently in celiac disease2 and may result in zinc deficiency, even in people who are otherwise in remission.3 People with newly diagnosed celiac disease should be assessed for nutritional deficiencies by a doctor. Celiac patients who have not yet completely recovered should supplement with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral. Some patients may require even higher amounts of some of these vitamins and minerals-an issue that should be discussed with their healthcare practitioner. Evidence of a nutrient deficiency in a celiac patient is a clear indication for supplementation with that nutrient.
After commencement of a gluten-free diet, overall nutritional status gradually improves. However, deficiencies of some nutrients may persist, even in people who are strictly avoiding gluten. For example, magnesium deficiency was found in 8 of 23 adults with celiac disease who had been following a gluten-free diet and were symptom-free. When these adults were supplemented with magnesium for two years, their bone mineral density increased significantly.4
1. Connon JJ. Celiac disease. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994, 1062.
2. Crofton RW, Glover SC, Ewen SWB, et al. Zinc absorption in celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis: a test of small intestinal function. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:706-12.
3. Solomons NW, Rosenberg IH, Sandstead HH. Zinc nutrition in celiac sprue. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:371-5.
4. Rude RK, Olerich M. Magnesium deficiency: possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:453-61.
In people with Crohn's disease, vitamin K deficiency can result from malabsorption due to intestinal inflammation or bowel surgery, from chronic diarrhea, or from dietary changes necessitated by food intolerance. In addition, Crohn's disease is often treated with antibiotics that have the potential to kill beneficial vitamin K-producing bacteria in the intestines. Vitamin K levels were significantly lower in a group of people with Crohn's disease than in healthy people. Moreover, the rate of bone loss in the Crohn's disease patients increased with increasing degrees of vitamin K deficiency.1 When combined with earlier evidence that vitamin K is required to maintain healthy bones, this study suggests that vitamin K deficiency is a contributing factor to the accelerated bone loss that often occurs in people with Crohn's disease.
Vitamin K and vitamin C, taken together, may provide relief of symptoms for some women. In one study, 91% of women who took 5 mg of vitamin K and 25 mg of vitamin C per day reported the complete disappearance of morning sickness within three days.1 Menadione was removed from the market a number of years ago because of concerns about potential toxicity. Although some doctors still use a combination of vitamin K1 (the most prevalent form of vitamin K in food) and vitamin C for morning sickness, no studies on this treatment have been done.
Vitamin K is needed for proper bone formation and blood clotting. In both cases, vitamin K does this by helping the body transport calcium. Vitamin K is used by doctors when treating an overdose of the drug warfarin. Also, doctors prescribe vitamin K to prevent excessive bleeding in people taking warfarin but requiring surgery.
There is promising preliminary evidence that vitamin K2 (not vitamin K1), may improve a group of blood disorders known as myelodysplastic syndromes,1 which carry a significantly increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia.
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